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Outlining and Identifying the Characteristics of the Flora and Fauna - Essay Example

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The presence of different flora and fauna species on a rocky shore are dependent on the tidal water level, chemical balance and interactions with other species in each zone along its profile (Denny, M.W. Gaines, and S.D. 2007). Each organism found in this habitat has a different adaptation to increase survival levels in environments with harsh extremes. …
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Outlining and Identifying the Characteristics of the Flora and Fauna
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A report Outline Identifying the Characteristic of The Flora and Fauna of a Rocky Shore Profile at Rhosneiger, Wales Results Thepresence of different flora and fauna species on a rocky shore are dependent on the tidal water level, chemical balance and interactions with other species in each zone along its profile (Denny, M.W. Gaines, and S.D. 2007). Each organism found in this habitat has a different adaptation to increase survival levels in environments with harsh extremes. A rocky shore can typically be separated into different zones each zone has a wealth of species that inhabit it. The splash zone, which is also the spray zone, usually occurs above the spring high tide line. The organisms here have adaptations to cope with high exposure to air and different temperature extremes due to different seasonal fluctuations. The intertidal zone can be split into three different sections the high intertidal area, the low intertidal region and the middle intertidal. The high intertidal zone is mainly hit with the highest of tides. The middle intertidal zone is regularly exposed and submerged by average tides. The low intertidal zone borders the shallow sub tidal zone and is primary marine in character. Shores with vertical zonation are similar globally. Zonation zones are classified by the different exposure levels to waves and also by the organisms that occur in these areas. Many a biotic factors may influence the result of a comparative survey of rocky shore biota. The geological factors such as the surface texture of surrounding rocks may influence the organisms found as they may need to be adapted to attach to the surface (Kitching, J.A. Little, C. 1996). Many of the rock surfaces at Rhosneigr were grooved and rough in texture. A study suggests that Semibalanus balanoides tend to settle on grooved rocks, especially among the crevices (Harris, V.A.1990). This may suggest the reasoning for the large settlement at Rhosneigr. The temporal factors may have an influence on the organisms, as there might be seasonal migration for different species, for example, the juvenile Semibalanus balanoides had not settled in Rhosneigr when the observations were made. This is out of character as they settled earlier in recent years. Discussion It is thought that organisms that occur higher up the vertical shoreline have a higher tolerance to dryer conditions, in contrast to the organisms that inhabit the lower vertical shore levels, which can tolerate high submergence levels. However, the idea that each zone is very separate is a clear mistake, as many different species are known to overlap as the zones descend. For example, on the shore of Rhosneigr Pelvetia canaliculata had slight overlapping areas with that of Fucus spiralis. This report aims to identify different organisms and species that may be used as indicators for each zonation level. Considering species, such as the Periwinkles, Littoria littorea and Littoria obtusata, and Barnacle species such as the Semibalanus balanoides and Elminius modestus. The distribution of Littoria Obtusata depends on the distribution of its food plant. The littoria Obtusata cannot be found on coasts that do not have Macro algae. An affected algae distribution does affect the distribution of Flat winkle distribution. L. Obtusata are commonly found on sheltered shores, and this is mainly where algae are found. A decrease in the algae population does signify a loss in the L.Obtusata species (Williams,1990). On the other hand, the distribution of Littorina littorea is almost similar to littoria obtusata because it is found in rocky shores, and it is an algae consuming species. The species is known to be common in the lower show and shallow sub-tidal. Its survival depends on the temperature. The species migrates down shore relative to the temperatures fall in autumn. During spring, the species moves up shore as temperatures rise in spring. Barnacle species are organisms of temperate rocky shores they are imperative in the zonation scheme. Most of these species is observed during spring low tide. Scientist describes the Barnacle species as sub littoral species. However, in the British shows the Barnacles species are described as intertidal species. Lewis described that the distribution of intertidal species depends on wave exposure; an increase in wave exposure does widen the distribution of intertidal organism. The Elminius Modestus when alive has a slated –grey colour. They are not tubiferous like the Barnacles. Eliminius Modestus can adapt to saline variations in their environment. They are common in summer and are usually found in the planktons. They usually settle on top of the Barnacles that have already settled. The cyprids do settle on the shores during autumn, according to Bassinadle the settlement usually begins around September. However, it is noted that the settlement of cyprids over the years seems to be fluctuating (1964). Many cyprids die due to heavy wave action. However, cyprids are also intertidal organisms. References Bassindale, R, 1964. “British Barnacles.” British Fauna, p. 68. Denny M. W. and Wethey D 2001 “Physical Processes that Generate Patterns in Marine Communties,” Marine Community Ecology, 2001. Kitching J.A. and Collin L 1996, The Biology of Rocky Shores. London: Oxford University Press. Williams, Gray 1990, “The Comparative Ecology Of the Flat Periwinkles.” Final Studies, pp. 469-482. Read More
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