quora
Nobody downloaded yet

Genetic Fingerprinting in Paternal Testing and Forensic Science - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Genetic Fingerprinting in Paternal Testing and Forensic Science Name School Name Abstract This paper looks at the use of genetic fingerprinting in paternal testing and forensic science. In doing this, a number of problems with the method have been identified; the strength of genetic fingerprinting in paternity testing (similarity in related individuals) is its downfall in forensic science…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.8% of users find it useful
Genetic Fingerprinting in Paternal Testing and Forensic Science
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Genetic Fingerprinting in Paternal Testing and Forensic Science"

Download file to see previous pages Introduction Genetic fingerprinting is a technique that relies on exploiting the differences between human DNA sequences, particularly in variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs), for identification. Predominantly the technique is used in paternity testing and the forensic sciences, and can be used as evidence in a criminal trial (Sheindlin 1996). The use of these VNTRs relies on the fact that these are highly variable between non-related humans and so any matches that are made, either between two individuals or forensic evidence and an accused, is not likely to arise by chance (Toth 1997). The purpose of this essay is to explore the applications of genetic fingerprinting technology in paternal testing and forensic science, as well as highlighting some of the pitfalls of using such technology, particularly in a legal setting. Genetic Fingerprinting The principles of genetic fingerprinting rely on the differences between human genomic sequences. Although 99% of the human genome is the same in structure, there are certain differences (known as polymorphisms) that are distinctly different in individuals that are not related. For example, VNTRs, particularly short tandem repeats (STRs or microsatellites) are molecular markers that are extremely prone to mutation (Gill et al 1987). All human genomes contain STRs, but these vary hugely between populations and within them, to the extent that 1 in 5 million people will have the same sequence by chance (Jeffreys, Wilson & Stein 1985). Any technique that can ascertain whether two DNA samples match will, therefore, reduce the possible number of perpetrators hugely, making genetic fingerprinting immensely useful to the law. Related individuals also have similarity due to the STRs being co-dominant; each offspring will have one allele from each parent. It is this fact that makes genetic fingerprinting useful in paternity testing (Jeffreys et al 1985). Genetic profiling can occur in a number of ways. One of the most common is polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which amplifies the amounts of a specific DNA sequence, which is evidently useful when working with known STRs. This is achieved using oglionucleotide primers as well as a DNA polymerase, with the primers targeting a specific STR and the DNA polymerase amplifying them for analysis (Welsh & McClelland 1990). It is important that multiple STRs are analysed using PCR, because each individual one can be shared by around 5-20% of the population (Sheindlin 1996). Using multiple STRs for analysis greatly increases the probability that an exact match will be made for whatever reason the analysis is occurring. This method relies on the principle of independent assortment, and the product rule for probabilities means that the chance of someone having the same alleles at multiple STR loci decreases with the number of loci analysed. Genetic Fingerprinting in Paternal Testing It is because of the nature of VNTRs that makes them useful for paternal testing; because they are co-dominantly inherited, each individual will inherit one copy from each parent. This means that when trying to ascertain paternity, an individual will have the same sequence at each VNTR locus as the father (as well as one from the mother at the corresponding locus). If the mothers VNTR genotype is known, then these ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Genetic Fingerprinting in Paternal Testing and Forensic Science Research Paper”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1444870-genetic-fingerprinting-in-paternal-testing-and
(Genetic Fingerprinting in Paternal Testing and Forensic Science Research Paper)
https://studentshare.org/biology/1444870-genetic-fingerprinting-in-paternal-testing-and.
“Genetic Fingerprinting in Paternal Testing and Forensic Science Research Paper”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1444870-genetic-fingerprinting-in-paternal-testing-and.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Genetic testing/Genetic Screening
With advancements in molecular biology and genetics, man has acquired the power to change the genetic characteristics of living beings. GenEthics, was thus born, with controversies and ethical debates as to whether man can “play god”. Just because the technology exists, should it be used to alter nature?
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
How has Forensic Science Impacted Anit-terrorism Internationally or Nationally
How has forensic science impacted anti-terrorism internationally or nationally? Student Name Course Name TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 3 Current Challenges 4 Best Practices 5 Resources 6 Applicable Technology 8 Research and Evaluation Needs 9 Homeland Securities 11 References 13 Introduction The word of crime and the area of technology have come together to make this world a place of complexity.
9 Pages(2250 words)Research Paper
DNA Fingerprinting
Name Institution Course Instructor Date DNA Fingerprinting Abstract DNA fingerprinting is a laboratory procedure that has proved very useful in personal identification. With its wide applications, it is causing a revolution in the modern world. Typing of DNA presents unique profiles for each individual except identical twins.
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
DNA fingerprinting
Every strand is composed of nucleotides, a sequence of bases. A base can be one of the four chemicals, adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine. The two DNA strands are connected to every base. Bases can only bond with each other as follows: Guanine (G) can only bond
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
FINGERPRINTING
The methodology has met the requirements of the Daubert/Kuhmo standards. With approximately 100 years of successful use in criminal trials the reliability of fingerprint
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper
Genetic Testing
then raise his most concerned argument and ethical considerations in the light of Utilitarian and Deontological theoretical concepts of business ethics. Genetic Testing refers to the use of medical tests through which doctors could predict the occurrence of genetic disorders
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
Forensic Science(Subject) Study of Forensic Collection and Analysis of Crime Scenes
The success of a crime investigation greatly depends on collection and analysis of evidence. Classification of evidence differs from one forensic scientist to another. It follows that the evidence is dealt with specifically. The two
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper
Fingerprinting
Fingerprint databases are still turned to frequently by police and investigators. Each fingerprint is unique. That is why it can be so effective as evidence. They are often left inadvertently and can show what a person has done and where
1 Pages(250 words)Research Paper
Engineering ethics in Genetic Testing in Children
The problems related to DNA-based tests include, not only that they are technically difficult, but also that they present a wide array of ethical dilemmas – in relation to their indications and their implications for the child being tested and their family. One of these ethics-related issues is the question of whether it is ethically right to test children genetically.
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper
Genetic Testing and Genetic Engineering
By studying twins, behavioural genetics researchers have attempted to unravel genetic and environmental factors human characteristics such as intelligence, sexuality and aggressiveness (Stearns, 2010).
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Research Paper on topic Genetic Fingerprinting in Paternal Testing and Forensic Science for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us