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Pertussis or Whooping Cough - Research Paper Example

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The object of analysis for the purpose of this paper “Pertussis or Whooping Cough” is a highly contagious disease, which is transmitted through the air. It is highly communicable and nearly 90% of the susceptible individuals develop the disease. …
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Pertussis or Whooping Cough
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Download file to see previous pages The present research has identified that there are two types of pertussis: severe and mild. Severe pertussis occurs in the infants and young children. Severe pertussis is more complicated and may lead even to death, whereas, mild pertussis is hard to diagnose and it is mostly misunderstood for the common cold. Bordetella pertussis was first isolated in pure culture in 1906 by Bordet and Gengou. B.pertussis is a small, gram-negative, aerobic coccobacillus of 0.8 ?m by 0.4 ?m. It is arranged singly or in small groups. They also have pili-like filaments and are non-motile. B.pertussis is the most fastidious bacteria. It is transmitted from a person – to – person through aerosolized droplets. B.pertussis causes respiratory tract infection in humans and warm-blooded animals. The incubation period of this bacterium is 7-10 days. The bacterial cells “colonize only the ciliated cells of the respiratory mucosa.” After the onset of the infection, the cells colonize in the mucosal membrane of the respiratory tract. The attachment of the B.pertussis occurs with the help of a pertussis toxin produced by the bacterium. The filaments those are present in the bacteria acts as a bridge between the bacterium and the ciliary receptor This pertussis toxin is highly toxic and has a number of virulent factors. The adjuvant effect of pertussis toxin on the human body results in lymphocytosis and hypoglycemia within 3 hours in the ciliated epithelial cells and also causes ciliostasis. The adenylate cyclase toxin and tracheal cytotoxin combine with pertussis toxin to cause ciliostasis. The same toxins inhibit the phagocytic activities of the host. The phagocytic activities include chemotaxis, engulfment, the oxidative burst, and bactericidal killing. The adenylate cyclase is a hemolysin that causes lysis of the red blood cells. The tracheal cytotoxin stops the beating mechanism of the ciliated cells. This toxin then kills the ciliated cells and extrudes it from the mucosa. It also stimulates the release of the Interleukin – I, thus causing fever. The first stage symptoms of pertussis are a cough, low –grade fever, running nose, sneezing, etc. After 7 – 10 days, the nasal discharge gets thickened and the cough also gets severe. This leads to severe upper respiratory congestion in infants. This is the second stage. It lasts for 1-2 weeks. The third stage is the more complicated stage. The coughing increases very heavily that the child will cough more than 5 times during a single respiration and have a sudden intake of air, causing a whooping sound. The sound is caused due to the narrowed glottis. At this stage vomiting, weight loss, tongue protruding, eyes bulging are most common. Pneumonia, the serious complication of pertussis, results in the 90% of the deaths in children under the age of 3. The infection of the bacterium causes substantial immunity. This substantial immunity lasts for many years. The second infections are more frequent in adults and are usually not severe. The infants and children are highly prone to the lethality of this disease. The children who are suffering from a whooping cough are prone to pneumonia. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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