Nobody downloaded yet

The community ecology of the organism - Research Paper Example

Comments (1) Cite this document
Sea otters are marine mammals capable of spending their entire lives in water.Being carnivorous in nature, they feed on sea urchins, crabs, fishes, mussels and clams. They are referred to as keystone species due to their profound impact on marine ecology…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.6% of users find it useful
The community ecology of the organism
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "The community ecology of the organism"

Download file to see previous pages The community ecology of the organism

Sea otters are keystone predators, whose presence has a far-reaching influence on the marine food web by affecting the populations of sea urchins, which indirectly affects the populations of kelp forests & other marine organisms. There has been a steep decline in sea otter populations due to water pollution and exploitation for furs. This has affected marine ecology adversely. It is therefore suggested that sea otters should be included in the endangered species list to protect them from further exploitation. This study focuses on the community ecology of sea otters and their impact on marine ecology. The need for their inclusion in the Endangered Species list and implications of such an intervention are also evaluated. Community ecology Sea otters predate on many herbivorous invertebrates, including sea urchins. Sea urchins feed on kelps, which are an important habitat for fishes and other marine organisms. A high population of sea urchins has an adverse effect on kelp forests. Since sea otters predate upon sea urchins, their populations are kept in check. “This reduces the grazing pressure on kelp, facilitating macroalgal growth” (Laidre). Therefore, sea otters play an indirect, yet vital role in the preservation of kelp forests. This in turn protects kelp forests and other macroalgae, which would have otherwise been depleted due to grazing by sea turn protects kelp forests and other macroalgae, which would have otherwise been depleted due to grazing by sea urchins. “Where sea otters abound so do lush kelp forests, and where sea otters are absent the habitat is typically deforested by hyperabundant sea urchins” (Soule et al 1240). The significance of this interaction can be wholly surmised only when the importance of kelp forests is understood. “Kelp forests are a source of food and habitat for dozens of other coastal species” (Soule et al 1240). Innumerable coastal marine organisms thrive on kelp forests, enhancing biodiversity of the region. Therefore, to maintain the diversity and richness of coastal marine ecology, sea otters should be preserved, who indirectly lead to the preservation of kelps. Impact of sea otters on community ecology The presence or absence of sea otters influences marine ecology at the community-level. Studies have shown that kelp forests enhance the underwater environment, providing a suitable habitat for fishes. The declining kelp beds in California in the mid 1900’s propelled the Kelp Habitat Improvement Project, whereby attempts were made to eliminate sea urchins that are primary predators of kelps. Studies showed that the elimination of sea otters during the 1800s from the Californian waters might be responsible for the dwindling numbers of kelp forests. Further studies have also shown that the population density of sea otters affects seaweed biodiversity too. In a study conducted in Alaska on three different bays, the Torch Bay, Deer Harbor and the Surge Bay, it was found that “the presence of sea otters led to a decrease in the population of sea urchins, which led to an increase in the population of seaweeds” (“Interaction with kelps & sea otters”). In addition, it was also found that annual kelps predominated the areas where sea otters were present, and perennial kelps predominated in areas that had lesser sea otter populations (qtd. in “Interaction with kelps & sea otters”). As is evident, sea otters are vital for maintenance of kelp communities that are primary habitats of other coastal marine ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“The community ecology of the organism Research Paper”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(The Community Ecology of the Organism Research Paper)
“The Community Ecology of the Organism Research Paper”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (1)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
ivawolf added comment 8 months ago
Student rated this paper as
I never thought 1000 words essay could be written in such a free manner. I loved the research of this essay. Will definitely use it for my own work!

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF The community ecology of the organism

Organism Physiology

...?Organism Physiology of the Organism The of the organism, which I am going to discuss in this paper, is ‘Frog’. Frog is an amphibian, whichhas its presence on the earth for millions of years. In this paper, we will talk about its main organs and will discuss how it has evolved physiologically to suit its external environment. Frog and Its Environment Researchers have done a lot of research on the physiology of frog. Some of the main organs of a frog studied extensively by the researchers include head, trunk, belly, webbed foot, hind leg, front leg, tongue, eye, nostril, and tympanum. Let us get an overview of some of the main organs of a...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay


... and Kramer 2006). This species relies on seeds, nuts, acorns, beechnuts, butternuts, and hickory nuts for food. These squirrels usually remain in their dens and nests during winter. The Gray squirrel must avoid getting into the way of its multiple predators. These predators include hawks, owls, raccoons, and snakes. Socially, these squirrels value relationships and have close associations within their communities. This species of squirrels exhibits unique behaviors when feeding. These squirrels have many predators and have to stay wary of while searching for food. This is the reason why squirrels exhibit multiple behavior changes in their search for food, as they have to strike a balance between feeding and remaining secure. Many...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper


...? LOCAL ECOLOGY (Alexandria, VA, USA) of (affiliation) LOCAL ECOLOGY The of Alexandria is located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, which is along the west side of the Potomac River. It is a high-income city due to its proximity to Washington, D.C. where many federal agencies and offices are located. Its population is only about 147,000 which translate to a population density of approximately 9,400 people per square mile. Its total area is 15.4 square miles (15.2 sq. miles of land and 0.2 sq. miles of water); Alexandria is a very historic place because of the key role it played during the American Civil War. Alexandria was declared an Eco-City in 2008, which means its inhabitants have promised to use the...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay


...; it is a complete horror. That partly explains why Beavan’s experimentation was one-of-a-kind and extremely praiseworthy. Beavan and his wife precluded from using PUVs so for a year, they were allergic of cabs, trams, and trains. They practiced vegan diet and stopped eating outside in restaurants and pubs. They only consumed foods that are organically and locally-produced. The quit the zest for watching television. They stopped using products that contain harmful chemicals and instead took advantage of some environmentally friendly launder powders like Borax and a baking soda to regularly clean their teeth. They quit drinking coffee. And yes, they avoided using elevators for a year. That is particularly difficult and...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Human Organism

...The human body is composed of billions of cells, each with a distinct function. Despite this diversity in cell function, all cells share certain common elements and functions (Berne & Levy). All cells rely on key elements such as fuel, in the form of food, water and oxygen from the environment in order for the body to survive. The body can only survive for (duration) without oxygen, (compare to food & water). This shows how vital oxygen is to the body. Oxygen delivery to the various parts of body is the primary responsibility of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. These two systems work in coordination and rely heavily on each other. This booklet will show the basic structure and functions of the organs involved... in the...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay


...Part What are some environmental impacts seen in rich nations (like our own) A. In rich countries, the populated areas are influenced mostly by production of energy which is advancing at a faster pace. The reason behind lower impacts is that the rich countries take advantage of the deforestation, intensified farming and other factors occurring in the poor nations. What are some environmental impacts seen in poor nations A. The poor nations suffer from climate change, depletion of ozone, deforestation and increase in agriculture which leads to several other problems such as salinity water pollution. The problems get severe is the population is high. Your answers should have been different to the questions above. Why... What are some...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay


...Introduction to Ecology Warm air has the capability of containing more moisture than cool air hence the less dense air which is low in atmosphere would rise, expand and then cool at 100C for every 1000m as observed by Molles (2009). The cooled air loses the ability to hold any more moisture and condenses to water droplets forming clouds. On the other hand, when it descends, the air warms and dries. The heat from the sun is distributed unevenly across the surface of the earth with tropical and equatorial regions receiving more solar than the polar and mid-latitude regions. Near the equator, the incoming sunlight tends to be vertically inclined to the ground causing greater heating than near the poles where the inclination...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Social Ecology

...Social Ecology The passage criticizes the arguments of Holmes Rolston about conserving the environment and responding to the population growth. The author, Robin Attfield contends that preserving the environment is right. However, he differs with arguments of Holmes Rolston on the best way to preserve the ecosystem. Holmes holds that conserving ecosystem should take the first priority over the interest of humans (Attfield 292-297). Holmes feels that people should starve, raise limited children, and preserve vast lands for the natural reserves. In addition, he human beings should not take the first priority over the natural ecosystem (Attfield 292). The arguments of Holmes favor natural ecosystems. However, the author of...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Ecology the Ecosystem, 2006). Not only the plants, but the bird population have also been affected, as a tremendous decrease in wading bird population or egret has being reported as a result of eutrophication. Conclusion: Everglades ecosystem is a unique beauty of South Florida and it has to be safeguarded in order to maintain the ecological as well as environmental balanace. New measures should be implemented to control problems like degradation, eutrophication, peat soil depletion etc. By maintaining the ecosystem in the way it was created will help revive its native organisms back to good health. Since the humans fully depend on the ecosystem, it is their duty to safeguard the different ecosystems all...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay


...1. Calculate the average relative rate of population change, [N(t N(t N(t), and its standard deviation from the population data for the southern resident population of the killer whale, British Columbia, Canada. Bolded Values to be calculated by the student Year Reproductive females Births Fecundity Total deaths Total population Growth rate 1974 19 2 0.105 2 73   1975 19 1 0.053 1 73 0.0000 1976 20 8 0.400 0 73 0.0000 1977 21 2 0.095 1 81 0.1096 1978 18 3 0.167 2 82 0.0124 1979 17 3 0.176 1 83 0.0122 1980 16 1 0.063 3 85 0.0241 1981 16 1 0.063 4 83 -0.0235 1982 16 0 0.000 2 80 -0.0362 1983 19 3 0.158 5 78 -0.0250 1984 21 5 0.238 3 76 -0.0256 1985 23 7 0.304 2 78 0.0263 1986 25 4 0.160 1 83 0.0641 1987 24 1 0.042 1 86 0.0362... Calculate...
1 Pages(250 words)Case Study
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Research Paper on topic The community ecology of the organism for FREE!

Contact Us