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Bioremediation Mycoremediation: the role of fungi to rescue the Oil spills - Essay Example

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Oil spill is a form of pollution that is mainly caused due to the release of chemicals, namely the liquid petroleum hydrocarbons, into the environment, particularly in the marine areas. …
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Bioremediation Mycoremediation: the role of fungi to rescue the Oil spills
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Download file to see previous pages This mainly happens due to the human activity since it mainly occurs in the marine region; hence, it can be termed as marine oils spills. Moreover, it also occurs in the land. “Oil spills happen when people make mistakes or are careless and cause an oil tanker to leak oil into the ocean. Equipments breaking down may also cause oil spills.” (Oil Spills, 2002). The factors lying behind the marine oil spills are due to the human activity or through any natural disaster like storms and hurricanes. Apart from the above, people may illegally dump the pollutants, such as the crude oil, into the sea. Moreover, terrorists may also cause the oil spills just to destroy the country’s resources. The major victims of the oil spills occurring in the sea would be the aquatic animals and other marine living organisms which include plants under the sea. Thus, cleaning up and recovering from the oil spill are a major tasks and it is mainly based on the factors such as the nature of the oil that is being spilled, the quantity or the amount and the nature of the area being affected. There are different methods for cleaning up the oil spills which ensemble chemical treatment and Bioremediation. Bioremediation is the process of using the microorganisms to break down and remove the pollutants. “Bioremediation usually involves the use of biological agents to detoxify a contaminated environment” (Thangarajan et al., 2011). ...
Generally, the oil spills are rich in hydrocarbons and they are considered to be prime polluting factor. Thus, some strains of fungus act effectively on these hydrocarbons and they degrade them effectively. The fungal mycelium excretes digestive enzymes and these enzymes break down the organic matter when it is absorbed into the fungal cells. The basic concept is that the molecules which are found in the hydrocarbons are similar to that of the carbohydrates which is plant based material and, hence, most of the fungi procure the ability to break down these hydrocarbons present in the oil spills. “Mycoremediation plays a vital role in breaking down the numerous toxic substances like petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl, heavy metals (absorption), phenolic derivatives, persistent pesticides, etc.” (Varsha, Deepthi and Chenna, 2011). Hence, as stated above, some strains of fungi utilize some of the hazardous chemical compounds as their nutrient source and they convert them into simpler nontoxic fragment forms. “Fungi are non-photosynthesizing, heterotrophic organism that derives energy from a saprophytic or parasitic existence”(Myco-Remediation, n. d.). Basically, the Mycoremediation process can be divided into three general categories, namely: using the target compound as a carbon source and attacking them, the target compound is being destroyed enzymatically and the hydro carbons in the oil spills are being taken up and concentrated within the organisms instead of being metabolized (Bioaccumaulation). Accordingly, most of the fungi species participate in all the above mentioned biodegradable processes and are more proficient in metabolizing the target compound and the bioaccumulation ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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