This paper “Fermentation Kinetics of Different Sugars” investigates the role of different carbohydrates namely glucose, maltose and lactose on the rate of fermentation. It explores the use of cofactor in the different process highlighting the role of magnesium ion in glycolysis…
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The findings achieved through the experiment showed an increased rate of fermentation in tubes with glucose and sucrose as the substrate while lactose showed a massively decreased rate of fermentation. The addition of sodium fluoride also caused a decreased rate of fermentation. Analysis of the complete data suggested that the carbohydrates used by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fermentation play a great role in the final rate of fermentation. Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentation, carbohydrates, magnesium Fermentation Cells and tissues irrespective of belonging to animal or plant have a minimum requirement of energy. Different processes such as synthesis of molecules, transportation, DNA replication and cell repairs have varying requirements of energy. To successfully complete these processes cells undertake many metabolic processes to achieve their supply of energy. Glucose being the most important carbohydrate and the end product of almost all food sources is the beginning point of these metabolic processes. Energy conversion starts from the process of glycolysis. As explained by Agrimi et al., (2011) glycolysis begins with the entry of a single glucose molecule and terminates with the production of two pyruvate molecules. The process immediately yields four ATP molecules. However, with the consumption of two ATP molecules at two different steps in the cycle, the net production via substrate level phosphorylation turns out to be two. Although the process itself is not affected by the presence or absence of oxygen, the final production of the ATPs is hugely affected under hypoxic conditions as only 2 ATP molecules per glucose are produced instead of 36 ATP molecules per every glucose molecule. Depending on the availability of oxygen the pyruvates produced at the end of glycolysis are either shuttled into either cellular respiration / Krebs cycle or they are used in the process of fermentation. Fermentation has been derived from a Latin word ‘fever’ meaning to ferment.
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The researcher utilized Lactaid which is an over the counter tablet as a source of enzymes, known to particularly digest protein and pectin. Obviously, the research adopted the experimental method. So, a control and an experimental set-up were installed for observations.
From this research, it is clear that respiration processes and fermentation processes are similar in that both have carbon dioxide involved in the processes. In the respiration process, the carbon dioxide is the respired gas. In the fermentation process involving glucose carbon dioxide is the byproduct of the reaction that mainly results in the conversion of glucose into ethanol.
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In the first part, fermentation is measured using gas height as proxy for carbon dioxide measure and the rate of reaction. In the second part, respiration is measured in terms of carbonic acid production. (ASPB Foundation n.d.; Nuffield Foundation 2013; The Regents of the
3. Add 1 ml of starch indicator and 0.05 ml of 0.1 M EDTA solution from the Chemical Shelf to the same 250 ml beaker. This drop of EDTA solution is to minimize the effects of trace quantities of metal ion impurities that would cause spurious effects on the reaction.
During respiration glucose is oxidized releasing energy and oxygen is reduced to form water. The carbon atom of the sugar molecule is released as CO2. The complete breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide and water requires two major steps: glycolysis
Fermentation is the process in which carbohydrates are converted into alcohols under anaerobic conditions with the aid of yeasts and bacteria or a combination of both with the concomitant production of carbon
Fermentation is a microbiological reaction that takes place in the absence of oxygen. The reaction aids in the conversion of sugars to alcohol or lactic acid. Specifically the process of fermentation refers to the conversion of sugar into alcohol by the use of yeast or use of bacteria in creating lactic acid in certain foods.
The relationship between concentration of a substrate and rate of reaction depends on the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate. This is expressed as the michaelis constant (Km) of the enzyme, which is an inverse measure of affinity.
Enzyme inhibitors are