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The Saharan region, especially Egypt, has provided historical information necessary for enhancing studies involving progressive and evolvement in traditional African societies. Most archaeological activities are concentrated in this region because the evidence has not suffered significant distortion from human activities.
Most archaeological studies have concentrated on the Sahara and Indian Ocean. Studies on Saharan traditional communities have focused on urbanization, stateless societies and trade activities (Wendorf 3). These studies provide vital information required for understanding the historical background of Africa. The notion of an African continent being divided by the Sahara desert is not a priority of the past historical studies. Most historians viewed the region as an intermediate area beyond which lay the land for Africans. Europeans described Sahara as an impenetrable land inhabited by the indomitable and hostile Tuareg. Sahara was the last region to be mapped during the European conquest, with most of the regions being less affected by colonization.
Studies focusing on the historical aspect of communities inhabiting the Saharan region have emphasized on the various ways in which diseases, technology and foodstuffs have affected the evolvement of the modern communities. Traditional studies link the presence of camels and Islam religion as indication of African connection to global community through trade. Use of camels and spread of the Islam religion were normally concentrated in the Saharan region with the Indian Ocean acting as the connecting channel. Enhancement of trade, introduced in the Saharan region led to the association of other African communities forming a, “formal, intra-regional economic network” (Wendorf 3). This led to the establishment of traditional trade centers in various regions that coordinated all the trade activities, especially in Egypt where
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