The biological differences that exist between different populations of the world are discussed with focus on differences observed in nervous system, physical characteristics, sexuality, ocular anatomy and development…
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Following a discussion about origins of biological differences, an account of the various differences observed among different populations is given. The work concludes by highlighting the importance of further research that is required to explore the mechanisms of biological differences further. Key words: differences, populations, biological Introduction If we take a closer look at the anatomical, psychological, behavioral and other aspects of the lives of people around the globe, it becomes clear that there are quite obvious differences that exist among populations. The blacks are well known for their stronger physique while the Asians are considered to have a comparatively higher IQ than other populations in general. Similarly, there are a number of diseases which are more prevalent among certain populations and totally non-existent in others. In terms of social behavior, people from certain populations are known for the aggressiveness while other are noted for being cool minded. These visibly apparent differences raise a number of questions regarding their true origins. Although, a simple approach would be to look for the causes in the political, social and religious spheres of life; yet a truly scientific approach would not miss the option of looking into the biological basis of such manifestations. Such queries may be directed towards delineating macroscopic differences in some cases; while in others the orientation of this quest should be towards exploring the microscopic explanations. Whether microscopic or macroscopic, the biological basis provides a rather novel explanation of the differences observed among various populations of the world as we shall see in the following lines. Discussion The origin of biological differences Human beings as a species have a history which is very rich in events of migration. Whether this migration was for the purpose of survival or for improvement of life standards, the ultimate result was a better adaptation of this species to the various environmental conditions of the planet. Exposure to new lands not only opened doors of opportunity to the migrated, but also provided them a means of intermingling with other population groups, thereby ensuring mating. Although various social and cultural hindrances limited such reproductive encounters; yet the biological aspect has always been favorable for them. In recent times, the promotion of concepts like 'globalization' and 'global village' have removed the remaining barriers to an extent where intermingling of genetic pools of different populations have become easier (Hagen). The basis of biological variation is genetic variation that not only exists among different species but is also observable within species. The basic code that determines the genotype and ultimately the phenotype of an organism is present in the cells of organisms in the form of DNA. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) possesses specialized sequences of genetic information which are termed genes; the genes code for specialized proteins which are formed within cells and later perform dedicated functions. The transmission of genetic information from a generation to the next is by means of a specialized method of cell reproduction that is termed meiosis. Crossing-over that occurs between chromosomes during meiotic process ensures shuffling of genetic material; the shuffled genetic code is presented for genetic coding purposes to the next generation. Other methods of alteration in genetic code may include processes like mutations due to radiation or mediation etc. It is obvious from this discussion that transmission of genetic information is a random process, and the genetic pool of a given population is vibrant enough to bring about detectable
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