1. Introduction Ever since the inception of development concept, development as a process has gone through various stages from economic development to equitable growth, to meeting the basic needs of people, to participatory approach of development and to the most recent sustainable development (Watts 1993)…
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The household livelihood security model allows for a broader and more comprehensive understanding of the relationships between the political economy of poverty, malnutrition, and dynamic and complex strategies that the poor use to negotiate survival. The model places particular emphasis on household actions, perceptions and choices. People are constantly being required to balance food procurement against the satisfaction of other basic material and non-material needs (Maxwell and Frankenberger 1992). India in its preamble of the constitution ensure all the citizens to social - economic and political justice. After Independence government of India refine its policy and programme time to time to achieve above mention objectives but still India has world’s largest number of poor people living in a single country. According to GOI, 2002 around 260 million people are living below poverty line. Rural area yields a poverty ratio of 28.3 per cent, 25.7 per cent in urban areas and 27.5 per cent for the country as a whole (Government of India 2008) Therefore, considering poverty alleviation as border objective, The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), 2005, is one of the most constructive efforts by the government of India to provide livelihood security to rural people by providing statutory entitlement of 100 days wage-employment in a financial year to household. This act aims to (A) increase the purchasing power of the rural people, (B) attempt to bridge the gap between rich and poor of the country, (C) primarily provide work to people living below poverty line in rural India, and (D) 50% of the total labour must be women. This act is covering almost 72.2% (census of India 2001) of the total population of the rural India. Considering its claims to impact the livelihood of rural population, most of whom are tribals in the villages to be studied, therefore it is necessary to study the implementation and impact of this act on rural tribal villages of India. The study would explore the impact exclusively on the tribal population of three villages from three tribal blocks Chhota-Udepur, Kawant and Pavijetpur of Baroda district. 1.1 Subject MGNREGA was born out of a long and painful labour of India’s struggle against poverty. Before it were programmes after programmes that was supposed to be intended to help the poorest sections of India but the trauma of the colonial rule was too fresh for India to fully focus on the future and not worry about the ghosts of the past. MGNREGA came at a time when the country learned enough lessons from past successes and failures in planning and implementing poverty alleviation programme. MGNREGA’s objective maybe divided into three elements, short-term, medium-term, and long-term. The short-term involvs the provision of employment to everyone who needs one for at least 100 days in a year. Everyone that has no skill and no other source of living or chance for employment is qualified to get this assistance. The jobs are designed exactly to fit the fact that most these people who will avail of them are unskilled due to the lack of access and finances to get themselves education. This first goal weaves into the medium-term plan which involves the utilization of natural assets and using the products and services the people will make and create an
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