Ethnography emerged out of anthropological tradition and it generally means to write about people or cultures. It has its roots from the Greek words, ethnos (people) and graphie (write). It is a methodology for descriptive studies of cultures and people. …
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Ethnographic methods include field work and qualitative methods such as interviews, group discussions, participatory activities etc. These are influenced by other theories, phenomenology, grounded theory, hermeneutics and post modernism. Ethnography has a long history dating back to the days of Homer’s Illiad and Odyssey. In some form or the other, it was prevalent in Islamic empires who wrote descriptions of foreign people they encountered. Missionaries in Mexico and Canada in the 16th and 17th centuries respectively also practiced ethnography. In its present form and format, Ethnography is known from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The first systematic ethnographic community studies in urban environments were undertaken by the Chicago School in the 1920s and 1930s. Today, ethnography encompasses a comprehensive range of studies of every imaginable human group and context such as institutional settings, medical anthropology, religious movements, studies on sensitive issues, extraterrestrial anthropology and so on. Psychological anthropologists strongly opine that biology influences emotions. Mead and Benedict propounded the theory that culture influences emotions. The interactionist school broadly categorized emotions into four major types – sadness, anger, happiness and surprise. Ekman (1974) postulated the basic emotions as happiness, sadness, anger, surprise and disgust. Izard and Buechler (1980) broadened the horizons of human emotions as interest, joy, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, shame/ shyness and guilt. Subsequently, Plutchik (1962 and 1980), Epstein (1984), Fromme and O’Brien (1982) and others looked at other emotions, essentially, within this broad ambit of emotions. One of the major models of emotion in the English language is the Circumplex Model of Affect proposed by Russell (1980). The Circumplex Model of Affect is a spatial model based on dimensions of affect which are interrelated in a very methodical fashion. Affective concepts fall in a circle in the following order: pleasure (0o ), excitement (45o), arousal (90o), distress (135o), displeasure (180o), depression (225o), sleepiness (270o), and relaxation (315o) . There are two broad categories of affect, according to Russell : 1. Pleasure-displeasure, the horizontal dimension of the model 2. Arousal-sleep, the vertical dimension of the model. Therefore, any affect word can be defined in terms of its pleasure and arousal components. The results of Russell’s study on the pan-cultural aspects of the conceptualization of emotion indicated that groups of words that met the criterion for a depression cluster were apparent in four of the eight culture language groups studied --Indonesia, Japan, Sri Lanka, and the United States. In the other four cultures, Australia, Korea, Puerto Rico, and Malaysia, it was observed that depression is a less salient organizational construct for these four groups. According to the Macmillan dictionary, grief is a strong feeling of sadness, usually because someone has died. Anger, is the strong feeling you get when you think someone has treated you badly or unfairly, that makes you want to hurt them or shout at them. Co-occurrence of anger and grief occurs generally in the context of bereavements – in personal life and in the case of disasters, infidelity in marriage and illegal or unethical acts. Anger Anger is considered to be the strongest of all human emotions. The Dutch, Italians and the Koreans handle anger, in their own, cultural defined way. People from Asian countries especially, always seem polite and are never seen angry. The reason is that in these cultures you are not allowed to show your anger. Peace and harmony in the family must be kept at all cost,
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(Ethnography:Co-Occurrence of Anger and Grief Essay)
“Ethnography:Co-Occurrence of Anger and Grief Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/anthropology/1419811-ethnographyco-occurrence-of-anger-and-grief.
It is built within a person’s nervous system involving the body and the mind, whereby the mind decides the person’s response, and the physical changes prepare the body for action to be taken. Anger can be managed, and not cured, resulting in the emotions being either useful or harmful.
Healthy grief Name Instructor Class 10 June 2012 When a loved one dies, feeling grief is a natural response. Grief can be considered as a coping mechanism and a process that people usually go through during the bereavement cycle. Different religions and scholars present diverse ways of coping with grief.
Hence, there are already many researches on how to have a healthy grief. Some even state that there are stages and process in grieving. In relation, each person can experience grieving. However, each person has their own uniqueness and individuality and so as the way each person handles the loss of someone.
In a psychological context grief is how we as humans respond to loss and it has a medley of social and physical implications for the one affected. Grief can stem from many causes and is especially damaging to mental and physical health. Empirical studies have even sought out to prove that if it is left untreated, grief can ultimately result in loss.
The stages of Kubler-Ross are used medically in grieving (Kübler-Ross, 1997). Different religions however use different models as a reference point for the steps that constitute normal grief. This paper will compare the
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