China and Japan are two neighboring Asian countries that are separated by seas. To bring about changes in their way of living, specifically in the aspect of art, architecture, and religion there were instances in history where the Japanese has collaborated with the Chinese culture…
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The period has also marked the coming of Buddhism to the country “from the Korean Kingdom of Paekche” (Mason 40). The city of Fujiwara-kyo that has been built with an imperial palace is known to have been constructed based on how the Chinese capital Chang’an was built; the palace precinct was being surrounded by earthen walls, covered by tiled roofing, with its surrounding earthworks and Buddhist temples (Mason 42-43). Another city was built similarly to Fujiwara, and this was the city of Heijo-kyo. In Heijo, Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples from Fujiwara were restored to achieve an identical structure of the former Japanese capital. Summarily, from the Asuka to the Nara period, capital cities have been established and re-established but as new cities were built, the pattern that was being followed was still Chinese; Buddhist temples, sculptures and shrines still existed. The Chinese is said to have also influenced the manner of how the Japanese people wrote and gave meaning to their written pieces in the past. During the Nara period (710-94), the art of writing otherwise known as calligraphy has flourished.
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In the city where the famous Basilica of San Vitale and the Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo is located, vestiges of Byzantine art and architecture can clearly be observed, reflecting the specific socio-cultural and historical contexts of the period when these structures were built (Fletcher and Cruickshank 282-320).
While the westerners are skilled in geometry and can precisely render light and shade on their arts, they fail in the painting skills. Most of westerners art too incorporate contrasting feature like smoothness and roughness, distance and proximity, depth and shallowness.
Chinese and Japanese gardens possess and brag such characteristics. Chinese and Japanese gardens may greatly be at variance in their design and the underlying motives of their creation. Chinese gardens reconstruct natural landscapes in smaller details. The overall and architectural design of Chinese gardens has developed for more than three thousand years (Wong, 2009), and comprise gardens of different sizes that were created by emperors, scholars, litterateurs, and political leaders.
One of the major characteristics of the art of this period in the Indian aniconic tradition is that it keeps away from the direct depiction of the human figure in art. In the Iconic phase of the Buddhist art which extends from the 1st century CE to the present, the iconic representation of the human figure gained importance and this form of art began to represent the Buddha in human form.
These vast teachings were never written down in the life-time of the great Buddha. The credit for this goes to his spiritual heirs i.e. the Indian Buddhists. After the Buddha's death (perhaps in the 5th or 4th century BCE), it is said that 500 of the Buddha's enlightened disciples came together and recited all the sermons (sutras) and precepts (vinaya) that the Buddha had taught.
Women were held in low esteem compared to men. The Buddha himself received criticism for giving this religious freedom to women. It was unthinkable at the time to allow women into holy orders, but the Buddha gave females the opportunity to prove that they had the capacity to attain the highest levels of religious prominence just like men.
The author states that there is little physical evidence as well as records of Japanese architecture of the early century. This is due to geographical and historical reasons such as fires, earthquakes and floods. However, archeologist and researchers determines that early forms of Japanese housing was characterized by dirt floors and thatched roofs.
However, it later got spread across other Asian countries like Japan, Taiwan, Korea, and Vietnam, influencing the sensibilities and styles of different calligraphies. The art of calligraphy encompasses a sense of aesthetic richness that is estimated to have spanned over four millennia
The debut of Japanese art and civilization in the West led to the coining of the term “Japonism,” which recognizes the influences of the Japanese art in the Western society. Genova indicates that Japonism was mainly promoted by the ukiyo-e form of art (453).
Much of modern western art is based around designs that the Chinese developed centuries ago. Up until the eighteenth century, Europeans regarded Chinese culture as superior to their own, so it made sense that they wanted to borrow Chinese art culture (Mungello 81).
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