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This paper evaluates historic movements such as Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Islamic and mannerism, and seeks further to compare and contrast some architectural designs and artworks of these movements. Answer to Question one Romanesque architecture The term Romanesque architecture describes the building style adopted between 800AD to 1100 AD. One of the finest Romanesque architecture buildings in England is the Durham Cathedral and is often regarded as the leading Romanesque building in the world (Kimball & Edgell 251). The composite piers, of the cathedral, are alternated with drum columns, flying buttresses or lateral abutments all concealed within the triforium over the isles. These characteristics were highly inspired by the religious fervor of the Romanesque architecture period. Therefore, the design shows the Christian values which were highly valued by the people of the time. Gothic architecture Gothic architecture is an architectural style that was most common during the early and late medieval period from 12th century through 16th century. An example of a Gothic architecture is the Cologne cathedral, which dates back in the early 19th century (Kimball & Edgell 260). The geometrical and mathematical nature of the construction is indicative of the orderly universe, which is laid logically and with rationality. The statue, the sculptural decoration, stained glass and murals incorporate the creative genius as portrayed by the old and new testaments. The building and its style emphasize the religious nature of the people and the way they valued God’s power and creative works of logic. Renaissance architecture Renaissance architecture started in the fifteenth century through the early seventeenth century and replaced Gothic architecture. An example of renaissance architecture is the Palladio's Basilica in Vicenza, Italy (Kimball & Edgell 258). The church has orderly arrangement of columns, pilasters and lintels. There is the use of hemispherical domes, which are all characteristics of the renaissance architecture (Kimball & Edgell 252). All these details were used to emphasize solid and spatial relationship where the idea of harmony leads to free and imaginative rhythms. The details of the style especially in the church building were more civic than spiritual. This feeling, therefore, emphasizes the blending of religious and secular values of the people of the time. Answer to Question two Islamic architecture incorporates both secular and religious styles from the time when Islam was founded to date and is extensively used in the shrines of Mecca and Medina (Bloom & Blair 152). Comparing the Fatimid’s architecture used in Bab al-Futuh gate and the Gothic architecture at the entrance of Carmo Church in Lisbon, Portugal, there are notable differences. Bab al-Futuh gate has a hemispherical dome while the main entrance of Carmo church has a pointed arch. In content, the Gothic architecture is created to give less democracy in the religious sense, while the mosque architecture emphasizes freedom and secularism (Bloom & Blair 159). Therefore, the sense of holiness elicited by the two gates varies from the outside details depending on the gate architectural style. The form and content of the two are seen in the materials used, the color designs, murals employed and the emphasized details with regards to logical arrangements, balance and creativity. Answer to Question three These two works of art represent the two periods; the early Northern Renaissance and the early Italian Renaissance respectively. These two artworks are different in form. The first element that differentiates their form is the painting details, which are emphasized by
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The Romanesque architecture represented high creativity in art that had detailed symbolism that was very vital to the church theology. The arts represented the degradation of arts through the copying of styles to imitate the roman models and art that was considered to be very creative and a great innovation of the day.
The simple design of a large rectangular space, called the nave, flanked by aisles, with an apse and transept was adopted later by Christians to accommodate large numbers of worshippers, and perhaps also because of the symbolism of the cross in its ground plan.
This essay discusses that one of the most recognizable aspects of Romanesque architecture is with regards to its characteristic use of semicircular arches. There is little agreement among scholars with regards to the exact starting date for Romanesque architecture, it is typically understood to be begun in or around the eighth century.
This essay discovers Renaissance architecture, sculpture, & painting. Historians argue on using the term exclusively for the Italian trend, most of the accounts on the history of Renaissance include the spread of the movement across Europe. In art history, Renaissance is the term for intellectual rebirth and the revival of classical art.
Throughout this period, life in Europe was difficult and not marked by spectacular events, inventions, discoveries or other successes that was seen regularly in the pre-medieval period and during the Renaissance. One of the major events during its long period was the crowning and rule of Charlemagne, the great who was instrumental in unification.
The Santa Maria Novella (Fig 1) is a church that was designed by Leonbattista Alberti and its construction was completed in 1940 in Florence, Italy. The Rucellai family, whose aim was to redesign the façade of the church that already existed, commissioned the project. The second church, the Tempietto, was built in San Pietro in Montorio.
The author says that the Roman model of building and decoration, therefore, became the order of the day, usually to represent and influence the religious, political and racial aspects of the populations in the medieval era. By the end of 12th century, the Roman art of decoration and architecture had spread widely in Europe.
Although Romanesque architecture necessarily engenders a great many compliments, one of the most recognizable aspects of Romanesque architecture is with regards to its characteristic use of semicircular arches. Although there is little agreement among scholars with regards to the site starting date for Romanesque architecture.
In this regard, Isozaki argues that the Metabolists’ attention to the forms of life must be in dialogue with the life’s dialectic (Petit, 2008, p.152). The fact that death cannot be experienced as a firsthand application means that it can only be
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