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Cross Cultural Issues in Tourism and Hospitality - Term Paper Example

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An analysis of the cultural differences to understand tourism and hospitality service requirements reveals cross-cultural differences. The paper examines Japanese and American cultures and describes the differences in the social behavior of each of these cultures…
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Cross Cultural Issues in Tourism and Hospitality
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Download file to see previous pages Emotions display based on one's own assumption of culture may direct towards wrong decision making and convey the harmful messages (Hofstede). The importance of understanding cultural differences multiplies when we consider it in the context of the tourism and hospitality industry. The tourism and hospitality industry, being the most booming one in past decades contributes to the economic and employment development of countries. It is the kind of service which has both subjective and intangible in nature. Understanding the tourism service climate and culture is undeniable for sustaining a competitive advantage (Kusluvan 487).

Clark suggests that national character, defined as the pattern of enduring personality characteristics found among the populations of nations, has a profound impact on buyer-seller interactions (qt. in Kusluvan 237). One way in which national character influences service transactions is through culturally specific norms regarding how and when emotion should be expressed (Feldman and Morris 1995; Grayson 1998 and Mann 1997 qt. in Kusluvan 237).

Ekman states, “Considerable differences regarding display rules exist across cultures”(qt in Kusluvan 237). For example, according to Mann, in Muslim culture, smiling for a woman can be interpreted as an indication of sexual interest and Muslim woman is socialized for not smiling atman. On the other hand, American’s norm of service is the display of smile absence of which can harm a female provider’s career(qt. in Kusluvan 237).

“While no empirical research exists which systematically examines ways in which cultural differences impact display rules and consequently the emotional labor requirements of hospitality and tourism workers, Hofstese’s(1980) framework of culture offers interesting possibilities” (qt. in Kusluvan 237). 

“According to Hofstede (1980), cultures can vary along four dimensions to include:individualism-collectivism,masculinity-feminity, high power distance-low power distance, and high-uncertainty avoidance and low uncertainty avoidance”(qt. in Kusluvan 237). ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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