Nobody downloaded yet

The Role of Decentralisation in Sustainable Urban Water Systems - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
The world's escalating population growth and the rapid urbanization of the planet has placed a considerable demand on the existing infrastructure to provide fresh water and manage the wastewater and storm water resources. …
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.7% of users find it useful
The Role of Decentralisation in Sustainable Urban Water Systems
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "The Role of Decentralisation in Sustainable Urban Water Systems"

Download file to see previous pages The Role of Decentralisation in Sustainable Urban Water Systems

Ideally, an urban water system would provide ample freshwater to meet the increasing demand, and have a minimal ecological impact from the transport and management of water resources. Urban areas will vary in regards to their access to fresh water supplies, land management options, and economic practicalities.
In addition, the urban planner may need to consider the existing infrastructure, as well as the possibility of future expansion. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role that decentralisation will play in the future of urban water supplies, and the ecologically orientated technologies that are available and may be utilised within the urban water system.

The urban water system is comprised of the clean water system for drinking and distribution, the wastewater from sewerage and treatment plants, and the storm water system that manages and directs drainage and overflow. In addition, it includes solid waste management, household sanitation, and wastewater disposal (Campos2 2009, p. 20). Clean fresh water needs to be free of toxins and harmful bacteria. In an effort to accomplish this, water is routed to a large centralised treatment plant to process and clean the water to make it acceptable for drinking and home use. A system of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration is used to treat water and remove the harmful components (Campos2 2009, p. 7). Chlorine is the most widely used disinfectant currently used to combat bacteria due to its low cost, ease of use, and relatively low toxicity (Hua, West, Barker & Forster 1999, p. 2735). However, chlorine is unpleasant and odorous and is ineffective at controlling the numerous pathogens in the water supply, whose discoveries have outstripped our ability to eliminate them (Hua et al. 1999 p. 2375; Campos2 2009, pp. 19-21). The large scale system of centralised collection, storage, and treatment is expensive and places the entire water supply at risk of contamination. Water stored at these facilities has come into contact with myriad toxins and poisons as it progresses through the water cycle. As more chemicals are introduced into the environment, it becomes ever more expensive and impractical to produce safe potable water.
Centralised systems are large, expensive, and must often treat the water as if it is the worst case contamination scenario. Wastewater will require treatment, and the major concerns for waste water management are the levels of dissolved elements, nutrients, and toxins. A water quality model that considers the complexity of the wastewater discharge is instrumental in predicting the short and long-term environmental impact of wastewater discharges, but is expensive and difficult to sustain (World Bank Group 1998, p. 1). However, decentralising the system allows the water to be treated on a local basis, and only requires the treatment that is necessary for a small amount of water, such as local runoff or rainwater collection. In many cases this results in only minimal treatment requirements. A new technology that utilises solar cells produces sodium hypochlorite from a salt-water solution, which makes the small scale production of a disinfectant on a local level economically practical (Moya). Sanitizing the water, distribution, contamination, and storage are some of the difficulties that are inherent in a large centralised water supply that can be overcome by decentralisation. Research has indicated that "decentralised systems for water, wastewater and stormwater are not only more ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“The Role of Decentralisation in Sustainable Urban Water Systems Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(The Role of Decentralisation in Sustainable Urban Water Systems Essay)
“The Role of Decentralisation in Sustainable Urban Water Systems Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF The Role of Decentralisation in Sustainable Urban Water Systems

Sustainable Urban Dynamics

...?SUSTAINABLE URBAN DYNAMICS (Section) Due) Cities as “the complex system paradigm” for urban ecology Cities have emerged as complex ecological entities governed by divergent internal characteristics of growth, evolution, behavior and critical global forcing functions (Alberti et al 2003). The implication of cities in urban ecology as emergent phenomena will be evidenced through the resultant actions of air pollution, traffic congestion and urban sprawl. Furthermore, the effect of human activities on the urban ecosystem will be immense as energy fluxes are redistributed with effects such as deforestation and acid rain...
4 Pages(1000 words)Term Paper

Urban Planning and Sustainable Development

...Urban planning and sustainable development towards the progress of Venice :University : Year : Introduction Overview of Venice History One of the most important cities in both medieval and modern period of the European history is Venice. Situated in Italy, it marks as a strategically important location in the medieval history of Europe. Venice is also known as queen of Adriatic and is the capital of Veneto. The distinctive part of the city is its environment being engulfed with water. It forms along the part of Venetian Lagoon along Adriatic Sea. Due to its close proximity with water along its side, it was considered a major base for naval...
18 Pages(4500 words)Essay

Sustainable urban develpment

..., though they are difficult to see and assess. These invisible impacts include changes in the quality of life, changing social structures and genetic changes. There are also several possible impacts of urban development, namely, increase in employment opportunities, cost-effective and efficient supply of basic amenities like water, electricity, gas etc., availability of medical and educational facilities, and promotion of safe and environmental friendly public transport system. The implementation sites are therefore required to be sustainable or assessed so as to evaluate the associated costs and benefits to the region and to the life of the people. For this, various...
70 Pages(17500 words)Thesis

Water needs in Urban Countries

...water systems. -The recognition and registration of underground water as natural resources requiring conservation regulations towards sustainable development. INTERNATIONAL LEVEL -The coordination among the different nations within the region to conserve their shared water resources. -The set up of international environmental conservation measure and regulations within the region. -Ensuring the development of environmental conservation laws and regulations within the region. -Adhering to ten set up underground water conservation measures as they are a common shared water resource within the region. Issues affecting...
8 Pages(2000 words)Assignment

Urban Water Cycle the point of return to the natural water cycle. Most traditional sources of water in urban centers are diminishing especially through availability and supply. This requires increased investments in integrated water management systems to improve sustainability measures (Tong 21). The availability of reliable fresh water supply in urban centers is an essential requirement to all human beings. Traditionally, every village in many civilizations had water wells that allowed residents to fetch water for domestic and agricultural use. The collection of...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Sustainable Water

... that only limited amount of water is being consumed. The tests which have been provided in the article have rather made my assessment regarding the sustainable water much easier. In other words, the usage of a more critical stance of sewage system helped me in knowing about the models which are being applied by many countries for sustainable water. Department of Sustainability and Envoirnment. "Sustainable Water Strategies." 2013. 10 March 2013. The article from the website is very helpful in the research of sustainable energy because it talks about a variety of methods that can be applied with limited use of technology. These methods are not just applicable in some... of the...
4 Pages(1000 words)Annotated Bibliography

Urban sustainable development

...concepts are inter-related and indispensable. Thus, any sustainable development initiatives should not address the two concepts differently as they are mutually related to one another. Conclusion It is plausible that a sustainable development for the city of Hong Kong focuses mainly with the social, economic, and environmental sustainability for both the current and the future generations. As shown in the case of Hong Kong, it is apparent that the urban sustainability will be the defining trend in the near future, especially in the world regions where extreme poverty is mainly concentrated. Cities in these regions will act a fundamental...
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper

Water (sustainable development ) reducing poverty (Elliott, 2012). It must share the prosperity of today’s population and in continuing to meet the needs of future generations. It calls for the efficient use of the available water resources which is carefully planned in order to deliver intermediate and long-term benefits for the planet, people and the need for prosperity. The three pillars of water sustainable development is economic growth, social inclusion and environmental stewardship. All these three pillars must be carried across all sectors of development, in cities facing rapid urbanization, therefore, high water usage in agriculture. The need for sustainable...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Sustainable water in Austrialia

...and ecological records to empower predictable investigation of the commitments of monetary divisions and common capital (Hundloe, 2012) Topic Sentence 4: Numerous significant cities in Australia are continuously implementing unified water management into urban development and town planning. Cities can be outlined as water supply catchments where urban rainwater gets to be a piece of the supply in water-delicate urban areas (Smith, Vromen, & Cook, 2012). Water utilized for urban watering system and watering parks and road trees has a vital part in...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

Urban Water Cycle

...Urban Water Cycle Summary of the Consent Decree In the last decade, the United s Environmental Protection Agency has brought over more than 40 cases nationally to eliminate the sanitary and combined sewer overflows (CSO). The latest enforcement of the matter in Ohio is between the State of Oho and the City of Akron in a consent decree that addresses the sewer overflows that involves the Cuyahoga Valley National Park that is an ecologically sensitive area, thus the enforcement priority. The case is of great interest because it involves the only national park in the State of Ohio. Downing asserts that as of 2012, about 2 billion gallons of raw sewage was being discharged into the Cuyahoga and Little...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic The Role of Decentralisation in Sustainable Urban Water Systems for FREE!

Contact Us