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Storm Drainage Design Project - Assignment Example

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The graph for the discharge of water in rivers is called a hydrograph. Usually, A line graph is used to present discharge in relation with time. Rainfall is also plotted with time using the bar graph. There are factors that control the shapes of a hydrograph…
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Storm Drainage Design Project
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Download file to see previous pages There is less chance of flooding if the lag time is great. A short lag time will indicate that water had already reached the river channel at a fast rate. The rise in the discharge shown in a graph is called the rising limb, whereas the decrease in the discharge is called the falling limb.
Large areas of basins normally receive more precipitation than the small ones and therefore they have a larger runoff. A larger size of runoff would mean that there is longer lag time as water has a longer distance to reach the river trunk. In most cases, the shape of the basin is elongated and produces a lower peak flow and longer lag time than a circular basin with the same size (Gillesania, 2006). The effects of the slopes are very important. The channel flow becomes fall faster down a steep slope thus, producing a steeper rising limb and a shorter lag time. The rock's permeability would mean rapid filtration and little overland flow. This will produce a shallow rising limb. Considering the soil as an important factor, infiltration is greater on thick soil even if clay would act as impermeable layer. Longer lag time occurs when there are more infiltration and more shallow rising limb. Concrete and tarmac form impermeable surface that creates s steep rising limb and a shorter time lag. Afforestation intercepts the precipitation, thereby creating a shallow rising limb and a longer time lag.
A rapid overland flow is observed with a higher drainage density. ...
The volume of water reaching the river from the surface run off is the overland flow, and the through flow is the volume of water reaching the river through the soil and its underlying rock layer

Cynon River hygrograph
Time respect to discharge

Cynon River hydrograph
Rainfall with respect to time

The data of Cynon river study was plotted having the results above. The study was done within a period of 4 days (96hours) continuously every hour, taking the height reading. All the readings are different from one another. We can see from the readings that there is a steady flow from the start of the reading up to its reading in the 42th hour. The water began to rise after the reading of the 42th hour. This is where the rising limb takes place. The time between the rise of water and the time the water reaches the peak flow is known to be the basin lag time. As it reached the peak on the 57th hour, the water ha now reached the peak discharge and it is now beginning to fall down. From the point, when the water height starts to fall down, the process is called recession limb. After the4 recession limb, discharge of the water will normalize. The storm flow is the total of the overland flow and the through flow. The overland flow is the flow at which water rises above the through flow, and the through flow is the water that rises above the base flow.
Channel Design
The discharge in the is Q m3. Apply the Manning's formula to design a suitable breadth b of a channel with depth d
v = R2/3S1/ 2 where: v = velocity, m/s
n R = ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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