Every OS has basic functions, like
1. Managing hardware
The operating system gives each program a certain amount of memory this is called a partition. If the memory becomes full, then the operating system starts storing copies of the pages into files on the hard disk. This is known as a swap file.
2. Run and manage applications
Many different systems are used for managing programs. You have single-tasking, in which you can run only one program application at a time. Multitasking in which in the standard operating system allows a single user to work with more than one program at a time.
3. Provide an interface for users
The quality of the user interface is what makes or breaks the system. This is the part of the operating system that interacts with the user. Sometimes it is also referred to as the shell. This is implying that the user interface is surrounding the operating system, which is known as the kernel. There are three different types of user interface. These are command-line, menu-driven, and graphical interface.
4. Store, retrieve, and manipulate files