Nobody downloaded yet

The Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Low Birth Weights of Infants - Term Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Running Head: CIGARETTES SMOKING AND BIRTH WEIGHTS The effects of cigarettes Smoking on Low Birth Weights of Infants [Name] [University] The effects of cigarettes Smoking on Low Birth Weights of Infants Introduction For more than four decades, there has been sound scientific evidence regarding the hazards of cigarette smoking in pregnancy…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.3% of users find it useful
The Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Low Birth Weights of Infants
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"The Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Low Birth Weights of Infants"

Download file to see previous pages These pregnancy outcomes are known to be associated with infant mortality (Kochanek & Martin, 2005). Hypothesis In this observational study it has been hypothesized that women who are smokers, on average, will give birth to infants with birth weight less than 2500 grams than those who are non-smokers Cigarette Smoking in the United States The prevalence of smoking in the adult U.S. population in 1965 was 42.4% (51.9% of men in the U.S. and 33.9% of women) (Giovino, 2002). More men than women continue to smoke (25.1% of men and 21.2% of women), however the decline in women smoking is at a far slower rate than that observed in men. The gap in the rate of smoking between men and women has diminished from almost 20% in 1965 to less than 5% in 1997 (MMWR, 1999). In spite of numerous reports since the mid 1960s about smoking and health risks (U.S. Surgeon General, 2001), a Department of Health and Human Services report released stated that 23% of the U.S. adult population smoked cigarettes between 1999 and 2001 (DHHS, 2004). Ebrahim, Floyd, Merritt, Decoufle, and Holtzman (2000), using data from the National Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) of 187,302 non-institutionalized women aged 18-44, found that the prevalence of current smoking decreased significantly among both non-pregnant women (26.7% to 23.6% and pregnant women (16.3% to 11.8%) between 1987 and 1996. A 1999 report stated that 21 % of all U.S. women and 12.3 % of pregnant women in the U.S. reported smoking during pregnancy (Mathews, 2001). The Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Reproductive Outcomes Cigarette smoking has been known for decades to be related to poor reproductive outcomes (Annette, 2008). Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with first trimester spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy, preterm birth, placenta previa and abruption, low birth weight, restricted intrauterine lung growth, and sudden unexplained infant death (Hofhuis, de Jongste, & Merkus, 2003). Further, cigarette smoking has been associated with fetal loss, respiratory distress syndrome and other respiratory conditions of the newborn, and sudden infant death syndrome (Schoendorf & Kiely, 1992). In addition, it is estimated that 17 to 26% of low birth weight infants, 7 to 10% of preterm deliveries, and 5-6% of prenatal deaths could be prevented if pregnant women did not smoke (Husten, Chrismon, & Reddy, 1996). In terms of birth defects, one study, using the 345 cases of infants with clubfoot and the 3,029 controls of the Atlanta Birth Defects Case Control Study database, Honein, Paulozzi, and Moore (2000) identified an approximate 20- fold increased risk for clubfoot to occur in infants born to women who had a family history of clubfoot and who also smoked cigarettes (OR=20.30, 95%CI: 7.90, 52.17). This risk for clubfoot was much higher when both factors were considered together than the risk associated with either of these risk factors alone (OR=1.34, 95%CI: 1.04, 1.72 for cigarette smoking alone; OR=6.52, 95%CI: 2.95, 14.41 for family history alone). There have been numerous studies published about the association of cigarette smoking in pregnancy and low birth weight. For example, a population-based Swedish study (n = 538,829) showed that smoking ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“The Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Low Birth Weights of Infants Term Paper”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/statistics/1430693-study-is-observational-research-employing
(The Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Low Birth Weights of Infants Term Paper)
“The Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Low Birth Weights of Infants Term Paper”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/statistics/1430693-study-is-observational-research-employing.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
Smoking Addiction and Cessation
Analysts continue to argue that it is the nicotine present in tobacco that leads to a great percentage of the users getting addicted to the pipes, cigars and cigarettes. Worse still, statistics indicate that the effect smoking not only affects the health of the users, but also risks the life of the smokers.
10 Pages(2500 words)Term Paper
Smoking Is a Public Health Issue
Research title Smoking is a public health issue. 2. Introduction and background While alcohol consumption and its adverse affects when consumed in limited proportions, is debatable, the same is not true with smoking. It is proved that smoking has ill-effects on the smokers as well as the non-smokers, even when small numbers are smoked regularly.
5 Pages(1250 words)Term Paper
Smoking cessation
Smoking cigarettes induced a drug called Nicotine into the blood stream. Nicotine is a stimulating element that increases the feeling of relaxation and pleasure in the brain. Most smokers become addicted to the nicotine chemical found in tobacco in cigarettes.
5 Pages(1250 words)Term Paper
The Effects of smoking cigarettes
In the contemporary age, smoking is largely associated with style and glamour. In the smoking ads, the cigarette making companies frequently choose publicly known celebrities, actors and models. These celebrities are style icons for the public in general.
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper
Cigarettes Smoking
Cigarettes have an addictive element in them known as nicotine and some other flavorful additives, which causes addiction. In the United States, cigarettes account for about 440, 000 deaths annually. There are many causes of smoking, which include, the body needs some nicotine especially in the case of addicts for physical reasons.
1 Pages(250 words)Coursework
Effects of Drugs Used by Parents on Infants or New Born Babies
Many people have the false belief that drug abuse is a personal matter and the society has nothing to do with it. In their opinion, only the abuser will be suffered the consequences of his activities and society need not interfere in it. In fact the major sufferers of one’s drug abuse would be the society and the family members.
6 Pages(1500 words)Term Paper
Health Care And Increasing In Taxes On Cigarettes
In recent years, most states have increased taxes on tobacco to assist in reducing their budget deficits. Economists have viewed this effect as a win-win situation as it has positive health effects and also a budget effect. There is a general agreement among policymakers that raising taxes on tobacco would result in a reduction of consumption.
5 Pages(1250 words)Term Paper
Cigarette Smoking And Its Alternatives
This is the practice of burning the tobacco and taking it into your lungs, or inhaling simply the smoke that comes out of the burnt mixture. It has begun since the ancient times, and condemned many times as well, however there are many tobacco rolling activities that just cannot be pulled out of our culture.
13 Pages(3250 words)Term Paper
Cause and effect of smoking
The brain responds by releasing special chemicals that bring the feelings of pleasure and energy. However, such feelings fade away within an hour leaving the smoker depressed and tired making the smoker to look for
6 Pages(1500 words)Term Paper
Supporting Regulation of E-Cigarettes
Though in one way or another it contribute revenue to the economy, it is hypocrisy since the responsible stakeholders in human danger control end up spending more than the revenue corrected thereon. With this high cost of
4 Pages(1000 words)Term Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Term Paper on topic The Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Low Birth Weights of Infants for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us