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1. Deductive Language Construct a deductive argument that is valid but not sound. Then, construct a valid deductive argument that is sound. Be sure to put the argument in premise-conclusion form. Deductive argument that is valid, but not sound: Premise: All necklaces are made of gold…
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Download file to see previous pages However, the premises are not accurate. This makes the argument valid, but not sound. A valid deductive argument that is sound: Premise: Either I own a dog or a cat. Premise: I do not own a cat. Conclusion: Therefore, I must own a dog. This argument can be valid and sound. It is possible that I own a cat or a dog, but not both. It is possible I own a dog. It also cannot be true that I own a cat because of one of the premises. The only conclusion is I own a dog. 2. Inductive Language Construct an inductive argument for a specific conclusion. Then, explain what you might do to make this inductive argument stronger, either by revising the premises or by revising the conclusion. Inductive argument for a specific conclusion: Premise: John is a redhead. Premise: Jay is a redhead. Premise: Jennifer is a redhead. Premise: John, Jay, and Jennifer are siblings. Premise: John, Jay, and Jennifer’s parents are redheads. Conclusion: Parents with red hair have a good chance of having children with red hair. This is an inductive argument because the conclusion is more than likely correct. However, it is not as strong as it could be. Here is another argument that might be stronger. Premise: John is a redhead. Premise: Jay is a redhead. Premise: Jennifer is a redhead. Premise: John, Jay, and Jennifer are siblings. Premise: John, Jay, and Jennifer’s parents are redheads. ...
Give an explanation of why each makes a mistake in drawing the conclusion it does. Review your classmates’ examples and see if they, in fact, commit the fallacy identified. Ad Hominem Fallacy Premise: Adolf Hitler was German Premise: Adolf Hitler waged a genocide war against the Jews, mentally ill, and Slavic people. Premise: Hitler was evil. Conclusion: Therefore all Germans are evil. This is an Ad Hominem Fallacy because it is based on a person’s, Hitler, character. Begging the Question Premise: Adultery is always wrong. Premise: Jane has committed adultery. Conclusion: Therefore, Jane is always wrong. This is Begging the Question Fallacy because it has circular reasoning. Jane is wrong because she committed adultery. Adultery is wrong, so Jane is wrong for committing it. Hasty Generalization Premise: My computer is an Acer. Premise: My computer’s hard drive crashed because of a virus. Conclusion: All Acer computers have hard drives that crash. This is a Hasty Generalization. Just because my computer crashed due to a virus does not mean all Acer computers have hard drives that crash. I might not have had the right anti-virus protection on my computer, or I could have bought a damaged computer. Just because one product fails does not mean the whole line of products will fail. 4. The Media and Fallacies One rich source of fallacies is the media: television, radio, magazines, and the Internet (including, of course, commercials.) Identify two distinct fallacies you see committed in the media. Do you think it is more likely that you will not be fooled by these fallacies having studied logic? What do you think those ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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