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Historical contributions of a Sigmund Frued to the field of psychology - Term Paper Example

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Known as the father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud is best known for his tendency to trace nearly all psychological problems back to sexual issues…
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Download file to see previous pages As such, Freudian concepts, which were widely debated among his followers and scholars, were deemed to be controversial yet remained to be worthy of our examination and understanding. This paper will look back at the historical contributions of a Sigmund Freud to the field of psychology. By examining his early life, one can explore his childhood and its influence on his understanding of human behavior. Also, his theories on dream interpretation, psychosexual development, the id and the ego, psychological repression, and transference will be explored to know more about his controversial theories in psychology. Moreover, by taking a look at three of Freud’s notable followers, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and his daughter Dr. Anna Freud, one can explore on how Freud’s ideas have influenced his followers to develop their own theory of the mind. Finally, discussion of Freud’s legacy and contribution to psychology will seal his achievements as one of the most important thinkers in the 20th century. Early Life On May 6, 1856, Sigismund Schlomo Freud was born in Freiberg, Moravia - a small town which was then part of the Austrian Empire, now known as the Czech Republic. His father, Jacob was a textile dealer and had two children by previous marriage. His mother Amala, who was 20 years younger than his father, gave birth to his first son Sigmund at age 21. Being the first child of eight siblings and in accordance to Jewish tradition, young Sigmund became the favorite in the family. He grew up "partially assimilated, mostly secular Jew”. Soon, Freud would become loyal follower of 19th century positivists in which he pointed the distinction between religious faith (which is not checkable or correctable) and scientific inquiry (which is both). For himself, this meant the denial of truth-value to any religion whatever, including Judaism.  A. Life & Education in Vienna When he was four years old, his father met a business failure and this made his family to move from the mountains of Moravia to a cosmopolitan metropolis in Vienna. A bright boy, Freud was admitted to a gymnasium in Leopoldstadt a year ahead of his time in 1865. By the time he graduated in 1873, he was awarded with honors. Initially, Freud intended to study law, but then decided to enter Medical School after having attended a lecture on Goethe's essay On Nature. He then joined the medical faculty at the University of Vienna where he obtained his doctorate in medicine. As early as from 1876 to 1882, Freud worked as a research assistant at the Institute of Physiology under Ernst Brucke, with neurology as his main focus.   In 1885 Freud received a one-year scholarship with Charcot at the "Salpetriere" in Paris. In 1886 Freud opened his first neurologist's office in Vienna, Rathausstrasse 7. Under Jean-Martin Charcot, Freud practiced and observed hypnosis as a clinical technique, and began to formulate the beginnings of his theory on the mind. Freud went on to make nervous ailments his specialty, concentrating on hysteria. B. Published Works By 1895, the year he published Studies on Hysteria with Josef Breuer, he had made significant progress in mapping out and defining his own theory of the mind. A period of intense work and self-analysis, further inspired by the death of his father, led Freud to his publication of The Interpretation of Dreams in 1900 and of Psychopathology of Everyday Life in 1901. The latter work, offering amusing and easily applicable anecdotes of Freudian slips, found a wide audience for his theories of the mind. By 1902 he finally gained the position of associate professor at the University of Vienna. In 1908 Freud established a Psychoanalytic society in Vienna, and thus his ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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