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Hall in her article argues that
I would postulate that such crimes could fall into more than one category. An example would be the 9/11 attacks. Presumably Al Qaeda flew airliners into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon because they were representative of hated American economic and military power. This is primary victimization in the sense that it was an assault on American institutions. It was also secondary victimization in that the people that were killed and injured were likely not personal objectives for Al Qaeda because they probably didn’t even know them. Furthermore not only were many victims not capitalists or military personnel many were not even Americans, possibly some Arab allies of the terrorist organization. It was also tertiary victimization because even those not physically injured or financially hurt were intended to be emotionally victimized into being too fearful to respond. While this obviously did not happen I am sure it was intended by Al Qaeda as is the case for all terrorist attacks. Finally an argument for mutual victimization could be made as no doubt Al Qaeda supporters would argue the attacks were payback fo American crimes of exploitation of their resources and mistreatment of their citizens. The only category not involved is 5-no victimization.
Not only can one event or series of events from similar causes result in multiple categories of victimization, but there is also a ripple effect because there are victims impacted far beyond those directly affected by a major crime. For example spouses and children of men killed and injured in the 9/11 attacks are victimized by the trauma of the loss of emotional and financial support.
1).Hall, Elizabeth Kaplan University “Victim Typologies in Relation to Hate Crimes” Deviance and Violence CJ266 Melissa Amaya Jan.19, 2010 retrieved from
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Currently, their role is minimal, since crime is perceived not to be violated against individuals but the state; therefore, crime victims feel voiceless and left out a system which focuses on the accused and not the plaintiff. As a result, victim advocacy groups have come up.
You might want to edit that. I tried to phrase it as if I'd visited them as a tourist. I am assuming you live in England.
According to Aldo Rossi in "The Architecture of the City" (Rossi 1982), typography needs to be the start of any theory or discussion involving architecture.
Notably, it was Mendelsohn who coined the term victimology in a paper which he presented to the congress in Bucharest on 1947 (Hoffman, 1992; van Dijk, 1997).
In 1941, an article entitled "Remarks on the Interaction between Perpetrator and Victim" was written and published by Von Hentig (Von Hentig, 1941) followed by "The Criminal and his Victim", a book published in 1948 where Von Hentig included a chapter exclusively for the victim (Von Hentig, 1948).
Compensation programmes normally include reimbursement of victims' expenses which also include federal crimes that resulted from the crime committed within the state. Crimes covered include violent crimes for instance, child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, rape, drunk driving and so forth.
Although the team collects the victim's information too, but that information is more related to the victim at the time when the crime was committed. Until recently, very little consideration was given to the information about the victim to an extent that the complete profile of the potential victims of the criminal could be sketched.
Whereas young people will look for and wait for instructions on what to learn and are more reliant on the experts to educate them in what they need to be familiar with for some future application, adults on the other hand call for the immediate utility of the knowledge or skills learned.
Victimiology studies various kinds of methods in which a victim may be caught as a scapegoat in a situation by an offender - According to Selin and Wolfgang, there are five victim typologies which may be classified as the following; primary
In most investigations, the victims of the criminal activity are the most crucial figures in the process (Das, 1997). The fact that the victims are the complainants in the case and sometimes notify the police regarding the said crime
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