These falling crime rates have made many jurisdictions refocus the punitive juvenile justice practices that came into place in the 1980s and 1990s. States are instituting major systemic reforms aimed and designed to…
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Many of the youths received confinement for criminal behaviors because there were no other good options. At that time, American cities were focusing on problems related to high children neglect and poverty. This put city leaders at pressure of getting a solution to the emerging issues (Feld & Bishop 2012).
In response to the challenges, pioneering penal reformers John Griscom andThomas Eddy organized the community against Pauperism. This was to prevent the housing of youths in adult jails and prisons. It further agitated for the creation of a new of system. The foundation of the two men led to the establishment of New York House of Refugees in 1825. This was the first institution designed to house the less fortunate, vagrant youth and the destitute. People to be housed in the institution were viewed, by the authorities, to be on the path towards delinquency.
On the likely event, The New York House of Refuge was established as the first Juvenile system. After three since its establishment, similar institutions started operating in Philadelphia and Boston. By 1840s, about 25 such facilities had been constructed throughout the country. Houses of Refuge located in urban centers were designated for delinquent, incorrigible and abandoned youths. The house of refuge accommodated an average number of 200 youths. Some houses like the New York House of Refuge accommodated over 1,000 youths (Carmen & Trulson 2006).
Until the late 19th century, criminal courts have been responsible for trying youths and adults. The 16th century education reform movement in England perceived youth to be totally different from adults. The juvenile system in America was fuelled a movement because youths lacked cognitive capacities and fully developed morals. By the middle of the 19th century, innovations like probations, cottage institutions and out-of-home placement were introduced. The
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From the research it is evident that the role of criminological theories and theoretical research on criminals and delinquents in the criminal justice system is not debatable. Conspicuously, theoretical researches have allowed for the development and the entrenchment of plausible explanations to realities of criminal cases in the criminal justice system.
Both courts however, protect the public and enforce the laws. At the time of the arrest, both systems require the reading of the rights of both adult and juvenile suspects. Both parties also have the opportunity to admit to the charges, to avail of a lesser punishment.
The juvenile justice system was born in 1800s to reform the nation’s policies towards juvenile offenders. Since then, there appeared number of reforms that improved the nature of the system. Reforms were aimed to protect the law rights of youths and transform them as good citizens.
After that, the focus would move on to having an understanding about the possible outcomes, when young criminals are dealt with in regular law courts. These outcomes are in relation to both the juveniles and also the overall society. History and evolution of the juvenile justice system The juvenile justice system came into existence during the initial phase of the twentieth century, based on the principle that there is a striking difference between adults and children.
After the arrest, the next stage is the decision making stage (Martin, 2005). A decision is made whether or not to detain charge, release or transfer the youth to another welfare program. This decision is usually made by the officer handling the case and this is based on the information received from the victims of the crime or offence committed by the juvenile, it could also be obtained from the juvenile him or herself or the juveniles parents requesting the Juveniles admittance into the system or from previous records that link the youth to the juvenile justice system (NCJRS, 2000).
In most states, the probation conditions are not specified under law, but are left for the juvenile courts to decide. This is also mostly guided by the recommendation from a probation officer. In juvenile justice system, the judge, and the probation officer are supposed to act as wise parents or guardians to the underage child (Del Carmen & Trulson, 2005).
This has paved way to increasing crime rates in the age group of below 18.
It is here, that one needs to sit back and contemplate on the ways and means to curb this rising delinquency rate. One of the best ways to exert a crease on such occurrences, is through education, Education helps refine children and their thinking processes.
shall adopt measures for dealing with such children without resorting to judicial proceeding, providing human rights and legal safeguards are fully respected. It shall ensure that children are dealt with in a manner appropriate to their well-being by providing for, among others, a variety of disposition measures such as care, guidance and supervision orders, counseling, probation, foster care, education and vocational training programs and other alternatives to institutional care.3
Before 1889, the concept of childhood in the justice system that people know today did not exist. Children who ran away, were neglected, or became delinquent were not treated differently from adults, when they were charged with crimes (Siegel). They received harsh sentences and could even be put to death (Siegel).
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