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The General Post office already existed in the UK and the AT & T in America to regulate this industry. However, the economic crisis of 1980s and 1980s changed the policy environment.
Cultural policy developed from cultural studies and is one of the most contradictory policies, practices and techniques that govern the complex contemporary society. It is derived from culture, value and creative industries concepts but since defining these concepts is difficult as they have various meanings, so is the problem of defining cultural policy. Whatever the definition, it is clear that forms of policy directly impact on forms of culture and cultural identity within a particular space, be it international, national, regional or urban. O’Brien defines cultural policy as the area of public policy-making that governs activities related to the arts and culture whereas culture refers to artefacts and activities associated with a given community’s way of life (2). This essay will discuss what is meant by cultural policy and what it entails. First, a background to the policy will be given. Secondly, the changes that have taken place will be discussed as well as their impact on society and economy. Thirdly, creative industries will be discussed to give an insight as to what cultural policy deals with. I will conclude by giving a brief summary of what cultural policy is and what it entails.
According to Hesmondhalgh cultural policy was initially formulated as “defence of art against commercialization, industrialization and commodification” (159). The policy ground then shifted due to neo-liberal ideology and information society prevalent in the twentieth century. The commercial culture industry was grouped together with other arts-based activities and renamed ‘the creative industries’ setting ground for contradictions and need
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Globalization can be explained as Covering a wide range of distinct political, economic, and cultural trends and discouraging barriers. Globalization became commonplace in the last two decades, and in today’s world, barriers and distance don’t matter anymore especially because of the advancement in technology, media and internal and most of all the mode of travelling.
The term "globalization" can be traced in almost every cultural practice and as such, there are repercussions that it brings about to the cultural diversity. Dominant cultures do influence other small cultures in different countries. Due to globalization, the identity of cultural diversity as well as environments that are multicultural, are presumably lost.
Globalization does not threaten cultural diversity but enhances greater understanding and cooperation amongst people, communities and nations at large. Culture can broadly be described as values, system of people and community that is sustained through generations and provides them with distinct identity within the defined parameters of social fabric.
The question as to what should be the proper focus for cultural policy is a prominent factor addressed by political institutions both in Britain and in other countries. Cultural policy focus remains an issue of contentious debate among policy makers. Notably, policymakers have a challenge to determine the primary focus for cultural policies (Mcguigan, 2004, p.
This is because, in considering universality of human rights, ideas regarding right and wrong or good and evil as existing in the society, seems to be incompatible when considering beliefs held by different societies. However, important advances have occurred to narrow the gap that exist between those lobbying for universality on one hand and cultural relativism, on the other hand.
In order to harness this cultural capital, the US government has developed cultural policies through 200 programs in 30 federal agencies (CAC, 2001).
A cultural policy is a set of rules and regulations set up by the Federal Government to regulate the cultural sector and its impact on society.
(See Table I – Gender Gap in Median Earnings of Full-time Employees in 2004 on page 6; and Graph I – Gender Wage Gaps on page 8)
In the United States, single-parent families are growing fast in number each year either by choice,
Hunters were in the community too in order to supplement the food gathered by the gatherers.
Foraging is a subsistence way of life. The practice is very common, as anthropology and archeology has found out over the