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The differences between the two systems are in terms of the court proceedings, the terminologies used in the courts, the judgment procedure and confidentiality. On the other hand, the similarities in the two are in terms of the right to justice, the right of appeal, the due process, and plea bargaining and right against self-incrimination. This paper discusses the differences and similarities between the juvenile justice system and adult justice system.
According to Siegel and Senna (2007) and Siegel and Worrall (2012), the similarities between juvenile and adult justice systems are mostly on the court proceedings due process. Both juveniles and adults have the right to an attorney. As such, adults and minors suspected can opt to keep quiet until an attorney is availed (Siegel and Senna, 2007). Attorneys to both adults and minors can be from the government. Adults and minors suspected can opt to hire attorneys, depending on their financial status. When adults and juveniles are to be charged, they have to be notified of the charges in due time by writing. After that, they have to answer to the charges in the court at the date provided (Siegel and Worrall 2012).
In the court proceeding, the juvenile and the adult justice system are. In this case, the prosecution must provide all the evidence for the charges. Witnesses also have to appear in the court to provide an account of exactly what they witnessed against the accused. The juvenile or adult accused has the right to cross-examine the witness regarding the crime committed (Siegel and Senna, 2007). In the minor and adult court sessions, the witness account and the evidence provided dictates the kind of ruling expected. In the case, evidence is sufficient; the court charges the accused. In the case, evidence and witness account fail to show the accused committed a crime or is delinquent; the judge or jury can terminate the case on technical grounds (Kupchik,
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It can mean a life sentence if the juvenile is charged as an adult depending on the gravity or the seriousness of the crime or offense. A procedure that must be followed is the recommendation of the prosecutor stating that the youngster meets all the requirements for transfer to an adult court and the judge must agree to such recommendation.
First, it was the Portuguese ships that left their harbor, followed by the Spanish. Then in the late 15th century to early 16th century, it was the Dutch, French and British ships’ turn to discover which will be later known as the New World. But before the first Portuguese ships started exploring Africa and the Indian ocean, ships sent by Ming emperor Zhu Di has been plying the China Sea.
The court procedure for minors is different from that of adults, in that while an adult is arrested, a minor is detained (George, 2008). Therefore, after the presentation of Colleen M in court, and her case cited or she is detained in a juvenile facility, the district attorney then files a petition for the minor, within 48 hours, unless she was arrested on a weekend.
It is clearly understood that spanking has many forms of intriguing aspects related to it. Boys or girls may start at a tender age but it has its own reasons for such strange behavior.
According to some voluntary organizations dedicated to drug and alcohol de-addiction, in the last few years' lots of youngsters have started approaching them.
In general, courts will weigh a number of factors in making this determination that includes the age of the perpetrator, seriousness of the crime, the suspect's previous criminal history, the mental state of the perpetrator, and jurisdiction where the crime takes place.
These changes have decreased the effectiveness of the juvenile courts as the social welfare institutions and converted the whole system into penal institution providing young individuals with neither therapy nor justice. The coalition for Juvenile Justice has reported in January that of the 300,000 to 600,000 juveniles who cycle through detention facilities after arrest awaiting legal action, half are under 16 years of age (Garfinkel 2004).
Over the past decade radical law reform concerning the transfer of juveniles to criminal court has led to the question being raised as to whether this restructuring has really been more effective in both preventing and controlling juvenile crime, or whether the fact of transferring adolescents to criminal court leads towards felony recidivism.
vious studies suggest that courts may treat youths with more compassion than adults (Hamparian et al., 1982; Bortner, 1986: Rudman et al., 1986; Champion, 1989, Fagan, 1991; McNulty, 1986, Clement, 1997). Thus, the assertion in "The Juvenile Penalty" that juveniles actually
This essay compares Andy Warhol's films and art. While doing his arts, Any Warhol also joined the film industry. However, many observers say that his films defied the rules of filmmaking; nevertheless, they had a great touch with reality. This paper focuses on the difference between the films and art of Andy Warhol.