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What one society may consider deviant may be acceptable to another. For example, in some parts of Africa, Indonesia and Malaysia just to mention a few, circumcision of women is a mandatory cultural practice, while in some countries such as the US considers the practice to be oppressive. This paper explains the concept using the labeling theory and also examines my personal view of deviance.
According to this theory, individuals become deviant because of two reasons; the society labels a deviant label to an individual, and the individual adopts the label by showing the behavior, attitude and actions associated with that label. This approach recognizes cultural relativity and that deviate can come from power imbalances. The theory illustrates how an individual acquires a deviant identity through deviance labels. This way, people become deviant because other people force identities on them, which they then adopt.
Labels are names that people associate with role sets or identities in society. Deviant labels are identities that fall outside cultural norms such as loner. The theory breaks down deviance into two parts. An individual gets an identity and then exhibits actions and attitudes associated with the identity. When an individual adopts a deviant identity, his or her actions and attitudes change to fit the new identity. This process is also known as retrospective labeling.
Once the society labels a deviant, in most cases, the label becomes dominant or master status, which now achieves a paramount status than all other aspects of the individual. Each label has its own prejudices and images that make others interpret in a certain way. Labeling can mould the behavior of a person especially that individual cannot shake off the label.
The theory also emphasizes on the issue of stigma on deviance. Stigma involves the disqualification of an individual from full social acceptance following a label or infamy that is hard to
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The author states that deviance is considered negative for the society, but the functionalist theorists have a different perspective of deviance. Functionalist theorist believe that deviance helps in strengthens the society and members of a society learn about what are non-deviant and deviant behaviors due to occurrence of deviance.
This paper is aimed at providing a comparative study of sociological theories versus biological and psychological explanation of deviance. Sociological theories are different from the two, while the two affect the intrinsic characters of a person; sociology affects the outside character of a person.
In response to part 2, labeling theory is considered as a legitimate theory on the account that fits the events in real life situation, yet is also supported by various psychological theories. In response to question 3, the third version of the cultural deviancy theory is chosen to fit the description of criminal gangs on the basis that it involves organized groups that seek to advance self-vested interests.
The Process Theories of Mate Selection suggest the relationships start at a common point which could be similar attitudes and interests. As couples grow familiar and comfortable with each other, they will start to “flock together” as the saying goes. Similarities in values and behaviors develop good communication, and, relatively, increase the tendency to develop trust and influence favorable relationships between couples.
Basic questions on the causes of crime and deviance, the roots of social order, and the response of the criminal justice system have drawn the interests of some of the great thinkers of sociology (Ruggiero, South & Taylor 1998). The outcome is a remarkable line of sociological theories of crime, such as differential association, control, labelling, subcultural, etc (Carrabine, Iganski, Lee, Plummer & South 2004).
Majority of people often confuse these two classes of deviance.
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The understanding of deviance can enable one to define what constitutes the norm within a society and that which is not. As a result of deviance within the society, different elements within the same societies are understood on the basis of the social normal and standards which have been established within the society.
The study examines the relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence and the impact of specific temperament dimensions on this relationship. It identifies the specific temperament dimensions that moderate the relationship
Smoking could also perceived as a sign of maturity and sophistication in certain societies, but viewed as a sign of irresponsibility and immaturity in others. With regards to this, people in mainstream media and
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