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One form occurred when health care providers padded their billings that are, overstating the extent or nature of services to actual patients. In one case prosecuted by the state, an ambulance service that routinely transported patients from a nursing home to a hospital billed the state for a 50-mile round-trip when in fact the distance was 5 miles. The other common form of fraud occurs when providers simply billed for patients they had never seen or for services never provided (Tillman & Pontell 17).
An interesting feature of Tillman and Pontell’s study was that a second sample of “street criminals” was selected for comparative purpose. These criminals were charged with offenses similar to those of the members of the Medicaid fraud sample. In a typical Medicaid fraud case, the defendant was charged with one count of grand theft under the Penal Code (PC) 487, and numerous counts of Welfare and Institutions (WI) Code 14107.5. The sample of “street criminals” was made up of defendants arrested on charges of grand theft and eventually convicted but with no prior arrests within the state of California. California operated under a system of determinate sentencing, which specifies a range of sentences, including sentence lengths for specific offenses. These ranges still allowed for considerable variation in sentences in that the range for many felony offenses includes probation, jail, and prison options. The sentence range for PC 487 and WI 14107 was probation, up to one year in jail, or 16 to 36 months in prison. The California Penal Code (Section 487) defined grand theft as occurring when “the money, labor or real or personal property taken is of a value exceeding four hundred dollars (the value has increased since then).” Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of the members of the Medicaid fraud and the grand theft samples in T&P’s study. Table 2 compares the sentences imposed on the Medicaid fraud sample and
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Contemporary Thought in Durkheim's Era & Division of Labor Durkheim begins his critique by justifying the concept of division of labor. This was a concept that had gained dominance and importance in his era. There were numerous concepts that had developed in relation to the renaissance and enlightenment in Europe that had affected dominant thinking during the industrial revolution.
While this has often been the case, in many instances, those who are punished, for example by being sent to prison, tend to finish off committing the same offenses for which they had previously been convicted. This has created a situation in the modern society where new and innovative ways have been developed to punish individuals who break the law.
The paper ends with a brief description of social crimes and their increasing popularity.
0.0 The Court Case: The case discussed refers to the Ontario Power Generation plant which is known for generating electricity to the neighboring areas. The normal procedure followed allows residents to sunbathe in the neighboring areas when the water levels are low.
One feature that is evident is that the penal spectrum involves a growing recourse of emotive and ostentatious punishments of varying kinds. However, one must not forget that such a move should be set against an enhanced continuity, and at the same time of a long-established trend towards bureaucratic rationalism (John Pratt, Emotive and Ostentatious Punishment, Abstract, Punishment and Civilisation, Vol.2, Sage Journals, 2000).
A discussion of justice fits into the theme of the papers discussion because of Durkheim definition of justice. Our concern is how law, morality and social solidarity have a relationship to Durkheim's accounts of these. Durkheim's accounts relate to the modern societies.
Max Weber is considered to be a founding father of modern sociology. Among the concepts of the theorist, his reflections on law have particular interests for this study. Observing Weber, law is a system of order achieved in a result of social convention between the society members. The law itself is a pure sociological concept, according to him.
and the modernization that occurs in societies and the determination of the universal social or even cultural mechanisms that hastens the process of changing society. (Dentler, 2002, p. 2).
In terms of culture, it is the study of the culture that signifies this group cultural
According to Durkheim, certain social facts such as family norms, and regulations exercise a form of coercive power on the members of a society.1 Presented as thus, these social facts are a part of society but which are objectively self-existent within a society.
An autopsy, however, showed that William was murdered. Delbert confessed to have suffocated his brother, Bill to death with the authority of his two brothers. They termed their actions as a mercy killing.
The brothers were semi-illiterate and had strange
Agriculture (USDA) had previously approved its use for the production of a type of ethanol (Enogen) only but not for corn production intended for export.1 The result is a rejection by China of U.S. corn exports that cost American farmers upwards of $3.0 billion after the corn
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