There has been a history of acts of deviance and their coverage by media to produce moral panic in our society, and it is interesting that the concept has become part of everyday language. The term was first used by Jock Young (1971) with reference to the reaction to drug takers in Nottinghill, but it generally associated with his colleague, Stanley Cohen (1972), who defined it as follows:
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A moral panic can be recognised in the intensity of feeling expressed by a large number of people about a specific group of people who appear to threaten the social order at a given time. These people become 'folk devils', about whom 'something needs to be done'. This 'something' usually takes the form of increased social control, which mean stricter laws, longer sentences, heavier fines and increased policing of specific areas. After the imposition of these new controls, the panic subsides until a new one emerges. It is interesting to analyse the contexts of moral panic because they invariably occur when powerful interests groups in society are facing troubled times. (Goode and Ben-Yehuda, 1994).
Cohen and others (especially Jock Young in his The Drugtakers (1971)) showed how agents of social control, particularly the police, 'amplified' deviance. They also demonstrated the media's rle in this process and thus started to draw attention to the ideological rle of the media in actively constructing meanings, rather than merely 'reflecting' some supposedly shared reality.
This approach was then developed by the Marxist critics of the media. Such studies were used to demonstrate how the media helped to avoid wider conflict in society by focusing our attention on the supposedly deviant behaviour of outsider groups, including youth 'gangs', 'welfare scroungers', trade union 'militants' and so on. By focusing attention in this way the media, it was claimed, contribute to creating and underpinning the social consensus on our society's core values.
Fowler comes close to suggesting that there is a deliberate conspiracy between media owners and journalists to construct reality in this way, a view of the media sometimes referred to as conspiracy theory. This is a not uncommon view held by critics of the media and there is evidence to support the view that newspaper owners are prepared to skew the news to favour their class interests. However, this is not a matter which is of primary concern to the hegemony theorists of cultural studies, who pay more attention to the ways in which cultural leadership is achieved and secured through the media. They tend to take the view that there does not need to be any deliberate conspiracy since journalists simply present reality from the standpoint of what is 'obvious' and 'natural' - and what is 'obvious' and 'natural' is what the dominant discourse signifies as such. (Cavanagh, A.2007)
Most societies at some time have been gripped by a moral panic and we need to know how to recognise one when it occurs. Sociologists are interested in the development of issues into moral panics. It is important to consider who actually has the power, if the power is the appropriate term here, to define the event as a moral panic, and it is also equally important at point the specific phenomenon becomes moral panic.
The occurrence of moral panic
Goode and Ben-Yehuda (1994) outline what they see as the five main features of a moral panic: concern, hostility, consensus, disproportionality and volatility.
There must be awareness that the behaviour of a particular group or category is likely to have negative consequences for the rest
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Media representation of Muslims therefore informs how the Australian audience perceives Muslims in the country. In this paper, it is argued that the purveyance of Muslims in most of the media in Australia is often a distortion of the reality brought about by media construction of the truth, stereotyping of Muslims and Islam in general and continuous negative reporting.
Incidentally, the media has also evolved in form. Previously, it began as a hand-written matter for personal use, and soon, posted on prominent places or spaces as a public announcement, or a smaller version that is passed from one reader to another when the printing press has not yet been introduced.
Introduction These images represent individuals of African descent and they are portrayed to engage in sexual immoralities. The image was used by the whites to destroy the image of the blacks in the west. The images and other propaganda posters are located in the national archives of the United States.
This causes him to buy Django for himself. It is then that Dr Schultz informs Django that he is inpursuit of John, Rodger and EllisBrittle. He then proposes to Django that if he agrees to help him locate and identify the brothers he will grant him his freedom plus a horse and additionalUS$75.00.
Therefore, the media also acts as a representation of the society's views that are often brought to a consensus in the media.
As we know, the media comes in varied forms and types. The media is broadly divided into three types, Print Media, Broadcast Media and the New Media Technology.
I have selected nine categories of death representation in movies (horror movies; movies about war; disease as the reason for death; suicide; capital punishment; grief and sorrow; action adventure; disaster; the After Life) and two main categories of books about death (Flora and Fauna and Social relations).
The author proved that women’s magazines have ten and one-half times more ads and articles promoting weight loss than men’s magazines do, and over three-quarters of the covers of women’s magazines include at least one message about how to change a woman’s bodily appearance – by diet, exercise or cosmetic surgery.
Men are represented in the media as central to the world of employment, they are the breadwinners who are responsible in providing for the family and they are the leaders in their households. Furthermore, their masculinity is stressed through images of independent and
However, as with many issues within our current time, the true definition of “piracy” is not entirely accurate with regards to the actions that small bands of thugs/fisherman/Islamists turned brigands of the high seas engage in. As a function of discussing and defining the term, this brief analysis will consider the traditional definition and means of operation that piracy has historically entailed and compare this to the actions and mechanisms whereby these individuals engaged in this supposed “piracy”.
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