We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Nobody downloaded yet

Human development - Essay Example

Comments (0)
Summary
There is no general theory of cognitive development. But one of the most historically influential theories was developed by Jean Piaget,a Swiss psychologist.The theory concerns the emergence and acquisition of schemata in "developmental stages",times when children are acquiring new ways of mentally representing information…
Download full paper
GRAB THE BEST PAPER

Extract of sample
Human development

Download file to see previous pages... There is no general theory of cognitive development. But one of the most historically influential theories was developed by Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist (1896-1980). The theory concerns the emergence and acquisition of schemata—schemes of how one perceives the world—in "developmental stages", times when children are acquiring new ways of mentally representing information. The theory is considered "constructivist". Unlike nativist theories (which describe cognitive development as the unfolding of innate knowledge and abilities) or empiricist theories (which describe cognitive development as the gradual acquisition of knowledge through experience), it asserts that we construct our cognitive abilities through self-motivated action in the world. Infants are born with a set of congenital reflexes, according to Piaget, in addition to a drive to explore their world. Their initial schemes are formed through differentiation of the congenital reflexes The sensorimotor stage is the first of the four stages. 1. Sensorimotor stage – from birth to age two years (children experience the world through movement and sene and learn object permanence)2. Pre operational Stage – from age two to seven (acquisition of motor skills)3. Concrete Operational Stage – from ages seven to eleven (children begin to tink logically about concrete events)4. Formal Operational Stage – after age eleven ( development of abstract reasoning)Cognitive development is defined as development of the ability to think and reason
reason6. Jean Piaget and Lev Semionovich Vygotsky were both pioneers in the
development of the theory of the cognitive development component of Psychology. The
way children learn and mentally grow plays a central role in their learning processes and
abilities. By understanding the progression of cognitive development teachers enable
themselves to better cater to the unique needs of each child.
Both Piaget and Vygotsky were regarded as constructivists. Constructivism is an
approach to teaching and learning based on the premise that cognition is the result of
"mental construction". Students learn by fitting new information together with what they
already know. Constructivists believe that learning is affected by the context in which an
idea is taught as well as by students' beliefs and attitudes7. One other similarity between
Piaget and Vygotsky is that they both believe that the boundaries of cognitive growth
were established by societal influences. Unfortunately, this is where the similarities
between Piaget and Vygotsky end.
The key ideas of Piaget's and Vygotsky's theory differ. Piaget believed that

intelligence came from action. He held that children learn through interacting with their

surroundings and that learning takes place after development. Alternatively, Vygotsky

felt that learning happens before development can occur and that children learn because

of history and symbolism8. Vygotsky also believed that children value input from their

surroundings and from others. Piaget did not place importance on the input of others.

Piaget and Vygotsky's theories on cognitive development also have differing

opinions. While Piaget's theory has four clear stages, Vygotsky alleged that there are no

set stages at all. The first facet of Vygotsky's theory is referred to as private speech, or

essentially talking to oneself. Vygotsky found private speech to be important because it

aided children in thinking through an issue and coming to a solution or conclusion.

Private speech eventually is internalized, but it never completely goes away.

Vygotsky's idea of a zone of proximal development is the second aspect of his cognitive

theory. A zone of proximal development is the level of development immediately above a

person's present level11. The zone of proximal development contains things that children

may not be able to do alone at the time, but are on the verge of achieving. Vygotsky felt it ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Human development
In a marketing career, understanding human development will allow me to better understand the needs and wants of people. In turn, this knowledge can help me to determine the best method of marketing a product or service to an audience of a specific age. The adult stage in lifespan development can be defined as the stage in which a person begins to develop and experience wisdom and expertise.
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Human Development
In this study after interviewing both the participants I have evaluated their life satisfaction with the application of some theories on human development and satisfaction. These theories include the self-determination theory, Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory and Erikson’s stages of psychological development theory.
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Human Development
As a result of this, positive energy cultivates in the individual and he/she is able to make positive approach towards life. Optimism works by enhancing the individual’s mood. It raises the individual’s morale so that he/she has high self esteem. This is conducive for the display of best performance both in the personal and social life.
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Human Development
But human development proceeds further to early adulthood, middle adulthood and late adulthood at ages 20 to 30s, 35 to 45 through the 60s and 60s to 70s through to death respectively. In the stages covering middle childhood and adolescence, development would be expressed over physical, cognitive and socioemotional domains.
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Human development
This implies physiological ripening of the nervous system (A2z, 2002). Cognitive theorist Piaget believes that learning does not arise from the object or from the child but from the
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Human Development
This can be a significant time of stress for the adolescent at a time period in their lives where they look toward peer acceptance in order to develop their own
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Human development
Each hemisphere of the brain provides its own interpretation and processes information differently. Left-brain people focus on analysis, logic, linear processing, and order. In contrast, right-brained
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Human Development
Skinner holds the view that people respond to the environment. He pioneered classical conditioning theory, which holds the idea that people behave the way they do because this kind of behavior has had particular consequences
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
Human Development
Otherwise, the child is likely to develop anxiety as he or she is undergoing that particular stage which persist in adulthood causing a functional mental disorder. To avoid
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Human development
When people have various opportunities and choices, they develop the capability to decide who to be, how to live and what to do. The capability approach forms the core forms the core of the study of human
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Let us find you another Essay on topic Human development for FREE!
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us