Research Proposal: The Cognitive and Behavioral effects of Maternal Employment on Young Children BY YOU YOUR SCHOOL INFO HERE DATE HERE The Cognitive and Behavioral effects of Maternal Employment on Young Children I. Introduction Women who work outside the home, especially when employed full-time, maintain much less time availability to ensure quality of relationship development with their children…
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Hence, assuming that the domain of psychology is correct regarding the positive correlation between nurturing and encouraging mothers and better cognitive as well as behavioral development, maternal employment may very well have persistent negative consequences on children. Theory indicates that poor attachment during the earlier years of childhood development can lead to increased aggression, overt defensiveness, and also externalizing of non-compliant attitudes (Panda, 2002). Poor attachment to the female parent, additionally, is said to create self-esteem problems as the youth continues through the different stages of cognitive development, lending even more support that maternal employment may have long-term, deleterious consequences on the child. With such a high volume of mothers currently employed in the labor market in the United States, understanding whether cognitive and behavioral problems are a recognized outcome of poor attachment becomes a paramount social issue. This research proposal reviews contemporary literature on the concept of maternal employment and the potential ramifications on children for this activity. It develops a hypothesis regarding maternal employment and child development, and provides an appropriate research methodology to examine potential outcomes on children related to maternal employment. II. Statement of the Problem Growth in maternal employment, between the 1970s and today, has been quite explosive. According to data provided by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2011 there were 71 percent of all mothers in the United States actively employed in the labor force (Dunifon & Gill, 2013). A total of 60.6 percent of mothers supported children under the age of three, whilst 76.1 percent of mothers had children between the age of six and 17 (Dunifon & Gill). This represents a sharp increase in the volume of employed mothers in the United States, as in 1975, only 54.9 percent of then-current mothers were actively employed in the labor force (Morrill, 2010). Hence, running under the assumption that maternal employment leads to lack of available time to nurture relationships with their children, maternal employment could be problematic for ensuring that their children are cognitively and behaviorally well-adjusted. This becomes a potent social issue which could have tremendous ramifications in the event that there is a measurable positive correlation between poorly-adjusted children and employed mothers. Society, therefore, needs to examine the many factors that drive women to work in an effort to explain the potential long-term consequences on child development. At the end of the 1990s, welfare reforms imposed by government representatives ended the ability of low-income, single mothers to negotiate cash assistance in the welfare system and also ended a variety of incentives for women to return to work. During this period, many single mothers were forced into entering the labor force. By 2009, at the peak of the recent recession, the majority of jobs lost belonged to men, which made women the majority of actively employed. In many different households, therefore, women became the dominant breadwinners. Econometric research, furthermore, indicates that poverty in the household maintains significant, negative impacts on child develop
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