Positivism - Research Paper Example

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Positivism Customer’s Name Customer’s Institution Name According to Auguste Comte, who is well known for his sociology theories stated scientific knowledge as the most appropriate one which comes by following strictly scientific methods through positive approach towards all aspects of work…
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Download file to see previous pages Positivism is often considered in scientist ideology context and is widely an attractive topic for technocrats who strictly follow scientific methods to resolve any problem and it was first systematically theorized by Comte, who has replaced qualitative parameters into quantitative numbers and has thus evolved a new topic in the history of Social sciences. Although, theory of Carl Marx widely known as Marxism is also viewed from Positivism approach but proponents of Marxism reject it to be related to Positivism and view Positivism as separate state of thought totally different from Marxism. The reason for this difference is the fact that Positivism only deals with numbers, facts, figures and data in quantity and does not take other factors such as reasons, analysis, evaluation and judgments into account (Macionis, 2012). Proponents of Positivism follow the methods of factual science i.e. they consider laws on the basis of Mathematics and then generalize it with the backing of Statistical data and then analyze the information into systematic, knowledgeable form. According to the supporters of Positivism, mental processes are similar to natural one's and thoughts generates in the mind in the same way as natural process occurs. Empathy and intuition are rejected as unscientific since they are qualitative behaviors.  Positivist historical knowledge was considered to be furnishing on actual facts and figures and historians were not allowed to make additions according to their own opinions and observations. They gathered a lot of raw data but were unable to generalize in law or theory forms due to the fact that Positivism is only a matter of quantitative information. This is why Collingwood believes that Positivism cannot deal with important issues and this is the major criticism of the theory of Positivism (Collingwood, 1994). If we see from Idealism perspective, then according to Tosh it is based on two fundamental concepts; everything that a persons experiences is in some way or the other related to everything else, and a person should have knowledge about the origins and progress of an entity to understand it thoroughly. Idealism basically analyzes the mental states of human beings in the context of history and then furnish different laws and presents judgments. In this way not only quantitative parameters are considered but also feelings, emotions and other non measurable features are also taken into account. Since, Idealism allows history to be taken into action, it has a broader horizon than Positivism and this, in my view, provides the theory of Idealism an edge over the theory of Positivism (Vincent, 2000). But both of these theories are subject to several limitations. The most potent problem of Positivism is its approach to generate knowledge only through scientific means without giving weight-age to opinions. The second main problem of Positivism is reliance only on existing facts and figures without including any personal judgments or opinions which creates lack of analysis. Thirdly, Positivism also ignores uniqueness of event as it does not verify events on the basis of prior happenings. The historians of Positivism theories either ignore the uniqueness of event or place it in wrong pool of thoughts. If we look at the theory of Positivism deeply, then according to Mill, Comte has divided Positivism into three stages or sub-categories which include theological, metaphysical ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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