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For any two of the following thinkers, outline their key ideas and assess their contribution to the sociological understanding o - Essay Example

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Herbert Marcuse and Martin Luther King [Author] [Institution] Contribution of Herbert Marcuse and Martin Luther King to Sociological Understanding of Contemporary Society Herbert Marcuse was born in 1878 and died in 1979. He was a Jewish sociologist and philosopher from Germany…
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Download file to see previous pages Marcuse also suggested the idea that America had repressive tolerance which is found in the East in the totalitarian states. Marcuse clearly expressed his ideas about the American system in his writings. He said that they have a tolerance for dissent but the ones who dissent are removed and shut out from the political and economic system. He wrote that the ones who oppose the American system are only the ones who are unemployed. This aspect of the American system was greatly recognized and understood by Marcuse (Kellner, 2012, pp. 113). Marcuse was the member of the Institute for Social research because of which he initiated the critical theory for society. There were many interdisciplinary projects in which he was involved which included the model for the critical theory, the development of the new theory of state and monopoly capitalism and the provision of a systematic critique and analysis of the German fascism. His first work to gain immense success was Reason and Revolution in 1941 which followed the ideas of Marx, Hegel and the modern social theory. Many people were brought to the tradition of Hegelian-Marxian social analysis and dialect thinking (Reitz, 2000, pp. 3). Marcuse wrote in his book Eros and Civilization about the psychoanalysis of the society. Sigmund Freud talked about the civilization being a place where the man must be repressed. A civilized person is said to be the one who represses his nature and lives unhappily. Thomas Hobbes also wrote about how living in nature is not pretty as folks have to live brutally. The views of Marcuse had emerged from these theories and he talked about the bourgeois society that was repressed sexually and politically. Even though Freud argues in his book that civilization unavoidably involves suffering and repression, Marcuse created his own outline of how a non-repressive civilization involved open and free sexuality, non-alienated labor, and emergence of a culture which furthered happiness and freedom. The reason why Marcuse had become an important political analyst and sociologist of his time was his liberal vision (Fulk, 2008, pp. 22). Marcuse rejected the organization of the society existing at that time calling it “surplus repression” where there was unnecessary labor, strictness on sexuality and a system which was revolving around profit and exploitation. Thus he called for the repression to end and a new society to be created. He also set out on a mission to educate people about not being repressive and giving the opportunities to one another to express their opinions. These were the ideas which had inspired the people of the 1960s and 70s. Marcuse lost his popularity as the Marxism faded away because the generation of the modern America was not appealed by these thoughts; they were rather busy in making their living. They knew that criticizing the system would mean they are finished (Farr, 2009, pp. 43). Marcuse had served in the government as a specialist in communism and fascism. He published the Soviet Marxism in 1958 which was a critical study about the Soviet Union speaking about the communism. Marcuse wrote about many views in his writing but the focus remained on the critique of the Soviet culture, bureaucracy, values and differences between Marxian theory and their version of the Marxism. Furthermore in 1964, Marcuse published his work One-Dimensional Man which included a critique of the advanced ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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