In order to establish that the concept of social justice is multi-faceted, it is important to look at the various definitions for this concept. Shookner (2002, p.2) defined social justice as, “Distribution of the social and economic resources of society for the benefit of all people.” In his definition, Shookner considered diversity and inclusion as core factors in the concept of social justice. He argued that diversity, which includes different races, cultures, genders, sexual orientation, age, religions, among others, should all be entitled to social and economic inclusion, for the achievement of social justice (Shookner, 2002). On the other hand, Hunsaker & Hanzl (2003, p. 9) define social justice as “the process through which society attains a more equitable distribution of power in the political, economic and social realms.” However, these have also argued that it is impossible for any society to exist without a considerable degree of social injustices. Therefore, a utopian society is nonexistent and unachievable. However, they noted that a society could make progress in terms of its state of social justice. This progress can be achieved when a society considers fairness in its social, economic, and political realms. This way, each member of the society will have the privilege of enjoying a portion of power, therefore, meaning that there is an equal distribution of power in the society. Hunsaker & Hanzl (2003) also noted that people in society can struggle
and fight for the ideal of social justice when it is denied to them. This is why different countries have social justice movements, which are composed of those people believing to have been sidelined in the country, with regard to the distribution of social, economic, and political power. Additionally, Hawkins (n.d) considers social justice to be the process of “upholding dignity, equality, rights, and freedoms of all individuals and communities especially those who are disadvantaged, oppressed and/or discriminated against” (2). Therefore, Hawkins considers social justice as a phenomenon that is of great importance to the disadvantaged and the marginalized groups in society. These groups have mainly been considered to include women, children, the physically disabled persons, as well as the poor in society. Today, most countries are addressing social justice by first ensuring that women, the disabled, and the other marginalized groups are granted their rights. According to the United Nations (2006), the world today is characterized by social inequalities in income distribution and distribution of other assets, which date to past decades. These inequalities mean there is no adequate social justice in different countries today. The United Nations blames poverty in the world today on social injustices. Social injustices are evidenced by an increased poverty of refugees, discrimination, insecurity, poor health, abuse, among other atrocities in society (United Nations, 2006).