Erikson's Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development - Essay Example

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Introduction Psychosocial theory of development is a theory that was developed by Erik Erikson (Shaffer and Kipp 44). Erikson believed that children are not passive reactors to biological urges as Freud stated, but are active curious explorers who seek to adapt to their environment (Shaffer and Kipp 44)…
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Eriksons Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development
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Download file to see previous pages This paper aims at explaining these psychosocial stages. At the same time, this paper is a reflection on my personal life through the perspective of psychosocial stages listed by Erikson. Eight stages of psychosocial development According to Erikson, the biological maturation and the social demands that people experience at particular points in life emerge at distinct times to create a crisis (Shaffer and Kipp 44). The eights stages of psychosocial development, which also describes the major crises in life, are discussed below. Stage 1: Basic trust versus mistrust (Birth to 1 year) In this stage, where the primary caregiver is the social agent, a feeling of trust in the caregiver for their needs has to be developed in the infants (Shaffer and Kipp 45). The infant may develop a view that world is dangerous place filled with untrustworthy or unreliable people if they are treated in rejecting or inconsistent way by the caregivers (Shaffer and Kipp 45). In my personal life, my mother played a role of primary caregiver. As she was very caring and loving towards me, I feel safe and protected in the society. Due to satisfaction at this stage, I am able to trust people and believe that world is a good place. Stage 2: Autonomy versus shame and doubt (1 to 3 years) This stage, in which the parents are the key social agents, represents the development of autonomy. In this stage, children must learn things like looking after their own hygiene, feeding themselves and dress themselves etc., as this stage is of learning to be ‘autonomous’ (Shaffer and Kipp 45). A child may begin to doubt his abilities or feel ashamed if he fails to attain independence or autonomy at this stage (Shaffer and Kipp 45). As far as my personal life goes, I was able to develop autonomy to great extent. This is because even though my parents were caring, they were strict as well. They inculcated good behavior and autonomy in me and did not hesitate to show strictness in case it was necessary to make me learn independence. In fact, I remember being choosy and particular about my dresses. I also learnt to eat with my hands during this stage. So I can say that I was fairly autonomous at this stage. Stage 3: Initiative versus guilt (3 to 6 years) In this stage, where family is the key social agent, children try to accept responsibilities beyond their age and capacity, in an attempt to act grown up (Shaffer and Kipp 45). This attempt creates conflict with elders around them as elders discourage or stop them from doing things or taking responsibilities that grown ups do (Shaffer and Kipp 45). The resolution of this stage lies in child striking a balance between initiative and in maintaining the rights and goals of others (Shaffer and Kipp 45). My personal life experiences from this stage are very interesting and amusing. Whenever I visited my grandmother, I used to like spending time in kitchen where she used to cook. I used to try my hand at helping her in kitchen while she prepared preserves from fruits and vegetables. However, to my dismay, most of the times she used to give me the task of cleaning the fruits and vegetable, and prevented me from doing knife related work. Due to my upbringing, I always listened to my grandmother and enjoyed the tasks which were given to me. Hence, I can say that I resolved this stage quite successfully. Stage 4: Industry versus inferiority (6 ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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