Research survey - Essay Example

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Qualitative Analysis Introduction When carrying out an analysis, it is vital that a person opts for a methodology depending on the subject of study. In essence, there are two methods of collecting data: qualitative methods and quantitative methods. These two data collection methods vary by their application of measurements and statistics in deductive reasoning (Dey, 67, 2003)…
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Download file to see previous pages Each of these data collection methods has its own advantages and disadvantages. The paper will delve into the main advantages and disadvantages of different qualitative data collection methods with particular reference to some existing surveys such as the SSP2001 Student Sport Survey 2013. a. Observation Observation is a technique that involves methodically selecting, watching and recording behavior and characteristics of living beings, objects or phenomena. Observation of human behavior is a much-used data collection technique. It can be undertaken in different ways: Participant observation: The observer takes part in the situation he or she observes. (For example, a doctor hospitalised with a broken hip, who now observes hospital procedures 'from within'.) Non-participant observation: The observer watches the situation, openly or concealed, but does not participate. Observations can be open (e.g. walking around a school with permission and making observations) or concealed (e.g., mystery customers trying to obtain prohibited prescription). They may serve different purposes. Observations can give additional, more accurate information on behavior of people than interviews or questionnaires. They can also check on the information collected through interviews especially on sensitive topics such as alcohol or drug use, or stigmatizing diseases. For example, whether community members share drinks or food with patients suffering from feared diseases (leprosy, TB, AIDS) are essential observations in a study on stigma. Advantages Observation provides direct access to the phenomena under study. Rather than depend on secondary information, such as asking people the cleanliness of a local hospital, the researcher actually observe and record the required in that situation (Moser & Kalton, 33, 1979). This is first-hand information and its reliability is confirmed. Observation gives a lot of flexibility to the researcher- structured and unstructured methods can be employed. Disadvantages Observer bias- Observer bias can easily occur when conducting observations or utilizing loosely structured group- or individual interviews. There is a risk that the data collector will only see or hear things in which (s)he is interested or will miss information that is critical to the research. Secondly, observation as a form of data collection may intrude the privacy of the person being observed, particularly when consent is not obtained. Time consuming- observations require a lot of time resource as the researcher must be physically present to make the required observations; Observer Effect- this refers to the way in which the presence of an observer can potentially alter the behavior of those being observed. To avoid or minimize this, unobtrusive methods should be employed (Abramson, 54, 1990); b. Interviewing An interview is a data-collection technique that involves oral questioning of respondents, either individually or as a group. Interviews can take the following three forms: face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews, and computer aided/virtual interview. Face -to -face interviews have a distinct advantage of enabling the researcher to establish rapport with potential participants and therefor gain their support. An advantage of this form of data coll ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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