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Final exam - Essay Example

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Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Questions 1. Compare and contrast the effectiveness of survey and ethnography research as a strategy of data collection. If you have to perform one or another what would be the most appropriate sampling technique you would follow?…
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Download file to see previous pages... Usually, research aims to provide an accurate answer to the posed research question by using the various research methods. According to Green and Dixon (1), the foundation of research is evidence, and the various research methods apply differing methods in establishing this evidence. Therefore, in collecting the essential information, a variety of procedures and methodologies are used. These are applied across a wide range of disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, cognitive science, and psychology. Two such types of research methodology are survey research and ethnographic research. Both types of research methods have similarities and differences. A survey is an approach for gathering and analyzing data in which respondents answer questions or respond to statements that were developed in advance. A survey can be described as a seven-stage process. It includes; the identification of research objectives, the identification and characterization of the target audience, design of the sampling plan, design and writing of the questionnaire, administering a pilot test for the questionnaire, distributing the questionnaire, and analyzing the results and writing a report, (Williams 67). Surveys often differ from other approaches of gathering data in a significant way. When conducted properly, a survey allows the researcher to generalize about the opinions and beliefs of many people by studying a subset of them. On the other hand, ethnographic research is whereby a researcher studies an intact cultural group in a natural setting over a prolonged period of time by collecting, primarily, observational data. The focus of such a research is to focus on everyday behaviors to identify norms, beliefs, and social structures among other factors. Therefore, ethnographic studies usually try to understand the changes in the group’s culture over time. According to Williams (68), in the ethnography methodology, the researcher has to become immersed in the daily lives of the participants in order to observe their behavior and then interpret the culture or social group and systems. The first step involves gaining access to the site. Second, the researcher creates rapport with the participants and builds trust. Third, the researcher starts using the big net approach by intermingling with everyone in order to identify the key informants in the culture. Therefore, these approaches are the same, or differ in their approaches. For both methods to provide valid and usable or credible results, they require thought, planning, logistical support, time and money. This is because both research methods are used over a period time. In order for a survey research to be effective, it must be systematic, impartial, representative, theory-based, quantitative, and replicable. Therefore, survey research is usually affected by the sample that is selected for the study. If the sample selected does not adequately generalize the whole population, then the research findings cannot be described as valid or usable. However, the effectiveness of survey research is enhanced by the use of data collection methods such as questionnaires and interviews. And while ethnographic might seem similar to survey research, the former does not use a sample to generalize the whole population. Instead, the researcher observes the behavior of a whole group of people. Therefore, its effectiveness depends on how well the researcher gets immersed in the host culture. If the researcher manages to blend in the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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