This approach is about finding that essential element that constitutes a specific religion. For example, Islam is based upon the Oneness of God, whereas Buddhism hinges upon reincarnation, and reaching the state of Nirvana…
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The definition of religion is therefore divided in two major distinctions: substantive and functional. Substantive definition revolves around finding the meaning or the essence of religion – the very substance on which it is built and followed. This approach is about finding that essential element that constitutes a specific religion. For example, Islam is based upon the Oneness of God, whereas Buddhism hinges upon reincarnation, and reaching the state of Nirvana. Interestingly, Scientology, which is religion to some, is substantially based upon following the so-called ‘scientific’ way of living. Edward B Taylor (1873/1958) defined religion as ‘belief in spiritual beings’. The functional definition of religion is based upon finding the role that religion plays in societies; pointing out those functions that sets it apart from other social institutions and give it the coherence particularly found in religions. Milton Yinger (1970)2 argued that a social institution must be given the status of religion as such when it fulfills the manifest functions of a religious social institution. He argued that finding meaning in life was one of the paramount considerations of an individual and if a theory that sets out concrete guidelines on how to discover that meaning, then that theory could be thought of as religion. Secondly, if a religious theory attempts to solve problems of human life – the ultimate problems of human life, according to Yinger, are to find what death, injustice, evil, life and suffering mean – then that’s religion. According to this proposition, the definition of religion is expanded and quite a variety of forms of ‘religions’ could be accommodated. Similarly, Robert Bellah (1970c) proposed a definition of religion that was similar to Yinger’s as it was based upon discovering whether a certain religious theory addresses the questions material to human life: those relating to “ultimate concerns’’ of life. Now, that it is clear that all encompassing definition of religion is an impossible task, it is pertinent to evaluate how Functionalism, Conflict theories and Interactionism view of religion. Functionalism is a structural perspective that sees society as an interdependent system, where each social institution - education, religion, family, media, government – perform distinct roles to achieve greater harmony and solidarity. It assumes that society is a system that’s inherently stable with a tendency to create equilibrium by itself, thereby, creating harmony and integration. Thus, religion too for Functionalists perform that very function, it acts to bring the community closer, making it more inter-dependent on each part of the system and contributes towards maintaining stability and equilibrium. Emile Durkheim researched the Australiam aborigines and South Seas Islanders, in his The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912) he argued that the main purpose of religion, especially in primitive societies, was to bring them close to each other. The purpose was not to connect with a spiritual being or a higher Diety but to feel the oneness among them. Therefore, religion infused social cohesion and increased the sense of collectiveness among the individuals. In modern societies however, religion is used to overcome the crisis of modernity. The increasing isolation of the individual from his family, peers and
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The concept of theistic evolution originated from the fact that most of the recognized religions all across the globe developed through phases, i.e., from polytheism to monotheism. A number of scholars have argued that monotheist gods appear to be less within reach to the life of faith, and therefore, the debate regarding the direction to be taken in certain quarters has been quite intense.
It provides the context or framework within which the strategies of a company or organization are formulated. Philosophy refers to the study of general and primary problems or troubles, such as those related to existence, reality, language, reason, mind, value and knowledge.
Yoruba is one of the four official languages which are spoken in Nigeria. Yoruba is also a member of Volta-Niger branch of Niger Congo family of languages. About 22 million people spoke this language in southwest Nigeria, Togo, Brazil and the USA (Engler 2012, p.13) Oshun seems to like a fair skin bronzed colour woman who has very good smile.
This facility appears to be the cheapest source for information, channel and connectivity for promotion of any business. Rapid attention has been gained by the social media due to the penetration of internet in our day to day urban life. Almost all of the business organizations find their indispensible presence on the social media websites in order to target their customers.
of the Islamic world should take suitable steps to eliminate those issues which are standing-in as threats to the progression of the Islamic world without having clashes with the western countries and keeping friendly relationships with all countries of the western
In the course of time, the traditional parent-children composition of a family was radically changed. A family nowadays is comprised not only of parents and their children, but also of other blood and non-blood related
One of the aspects of the non-traditional religion that separates it from the traditional ones is that they focus lot on “energy”. They think that the energy present in the universe as well as within oneself and can do
This whole issue is broad and encompasses many issues that range from poverty, education levels, racial branding, access to medical care for the vulnerable and many others that promote inequality an hence injustice in our society. Such issues necessitate the need to relook
It is the power of the culture that works as a magnet joining people from different origins. Subsequently, the process of socialization takes place in which people are introduced to their cultural customs and values which form their societal bedrock.
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