Free

Individual participation in the governments of China and Peru - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
One of the most crucial ways through which individuals’ participation in government can be actualized is through voting in the elections. When the citizens en masse participate in some process related to government, then only it constitutes individuals’ participation in government…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.3% of users find it useful
Individual participation in the governments of China and Peru
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Individual participation in the governments of China and Peru"

Individual participation in the governments of China and Peru One of the most crucial ways through which individuals’ participation in government can be actualized is through voting in the elections. When the citizens en masse participate in some process related to government, then only it constitutes individuals’ participation in government. When one views this perspective of individuals’ or citizens’ participation in government, it gives different perspective in the case of China and Peru. In China, with the anti-democratic Communist regime in power from mid 1950’s citizens’ participation in government has been only minimal. Although, all Chinese citizens above the age of 18 have the right to vote, they are only allowed to vote at the lower levels of political hierarchy. Lower levels in the sense, citizens are allowed to formally vote only for their township’s People Congress, and are hindered from participating in the ‘selection’ of the candidates for the County, Provincial and National level Congress. (Shivley). The reason why they are hindered is because Chinese leaders do not want to introduce and develop democracy in an optimal manner, only wanting to continue their hold. With the elected members and then selected members only elected the upper levels, the citizens have no direct role or involvement in the government formation at the National level including in the selection of President and Premier, and also at the provincial levels. Even at the direct elections at the Township Congress, mainly the Communist members are ‘facilitated’ to win, with non-members only minimally participating in the elections. Thus, it is clear even the crucial citizens’ participation ‘sphere’ of elections, there is only minimal and indirect participation of Chinese citizens, as the people are only allowed to elect the lower level representatives and even those representatives don’t represent the wide sections of society. Unlike China, in Peru democracy has taken roots and it allows the citizen’s participation in government formation. Elections are held at the district, provincial and at the national level. At each level, Peruvian citizens are allowed to participate. Importantly, with Peru following the Presidential form of government, citizens have the full right to elect the country’s head, which is not the case in China. With multiparty system in place and the presidential term limited to one term of five years, citizens have right to elect their representative. However, earlier certain hindering forces have acted against people participation in government. It happened during the rule of former president, Alberto Fujimori. In 1999, when he ran for the third term, there was electoral runoff between Fujimori and Alejandro Toledo, after the first round election did not give a clear winner. In that runoff, Toledo asked his supporters to cast invalid votes in protest against Fujimori’s election fraud, and around 25% of the votes cast were invalid. This act sort of hindered the people’s complete participation in government, as their valid votes could have given a clear cut representative, which could have been Toledo himself, as he had won around 29% of the valid votes, and with that 25% invalid votes, he could have got the majority. (Fall of Fujimori). Thus, it is clear the citizens by participating in elections can influence the politics and policies of the government. That is, by electing governments, which follows particular politics and policies, which are favorable to them, they can influence government formations as well as their policies after the election. This can be done in Peru, but not in China, because as discussed above with people having no power to elect the top leaders, they cannot influence their policies. In the case of China, that can be done only through protests, which also not allowed there. Works Cited Shively, W. Phillips. Comparative Governance Political Structure and Diversity Across the Globe Comparative Politics. McGrawhill Primis Online, 2009. Fall of Fujimori. Dir. Ellen Perry. PBS, 2005. Documentary. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Individual participation in the governments of China and Peru Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/sociology/1417835-individual-participation-in-the-governments-of-china-and-peru
(Individual Participation in the Governments of China and Peru Essay)
https://studentshare.org/sociology/1417835-individual-participation-in-the-governments-of-china-and-peru.
“Individual Participation in the Governments of China and Peru Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/sociology/1417835-individual-participation-in-the-governments-of-china-and-peru.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Individual participation in the governments of China and Peru

Governments Balance Law and Order with Individual Freedom

... Balancing law and order with Individual freedom Introduction Many people deem that individual rights and freedom should be free from any government interference. However, since the government want to maintain law and order, sometimes it limits these freedoms. There should therefore be a balance between individual rights and maintenance of law and order. Fallon (1993) indicates that in cases involving balancing, governmental concerns, used to maintain law and order should balance with the interests that underscore individual freedoms. For instance, the government can control even political speech to prevent chaos....
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Participation 4

...? Participation 4 How do you develop a cause-and-effect essay? What is the purpose of such an essay? Cause-and-effect essay depicts association between a known effect and its cause. The introductory paragraph mentions about a clear and concise thesis statement that a particular effect is attributed to a specific cause. And the essay develops around the cause (or causes) giving the evidence of its association with effect through at least two well documented resources. Increasing money supply leads to inflation. Here, the effect is inflation due to the increased levels of money supply finding a cause in it and not a vice versa. As such cause-and-effect essays are complex for the association of multiple effects with a single...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Totalitarian Governments

...Totalitarian Governments Throughout the history of men and nations, there reigned different forms of governments which integrate individuals in the society. These formal organizations have direct impacts on the lives and functioning of certain geographic regions. The structure and form of government were dictated, and in turn, shape societies and economies. This paper will look at the different form of totalitarian governments which played important roles in Russia, Italy, and Germany before World War II. This report will specifically look at how these forms of government arose and their different impacts on the aforementioned...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Student Participation

...to admit in public that they do not understand the lesson. The admission of such fact is associated with embarrassment and shame since other students would perceive that learner as slow. Unfortunately, the whole class feels that way towards themselves. Anxiety from past unpleasant experiences brought by humiliation either from teachers or fellow students is a strong motivator in keeping one’s self from actively participating in discussions. This is where the role of utilizing response cards becomes important. The learner can participate in learning by joining the group in responding to the question. The inconvenient feeling brought by anxiety is lessened since everybody is exposed when giving out...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Participation Questions

...Participation Questions: Discussion Roll No: Teacher: 2nd October 2009 Participation Questions: Discussion Enterprise Transformation is a transformation that takes place in an enterprise or business in order to bring improvement in terms of business expansion, profitability and market needs. In this transformation, the management gives consideration towards improvement of business procedures, launching new products, revision of rules and regulations, change of management or other staff, new planning for more profitable business and so on. The responses given for the question, “What is enterprise management?” reveal about changes that occur in a business concerning people working in an organization, products and services offered... Questions:...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Participation

...Descriptive and Normative claims Normative and descriptive claims are often misinterpreted by the people. “In normative claims, a conclusion is drawn from the observation made above, namely that some action is wrong in one society and is right in another. This is a normative claim because it goes beyond simply observing that this action is treated as wrong in one place and treated as right in another”1. Suicide is a controversial topic people often confused with and used as normative and descriptive claims. Proponents of suicide argue a person has the moral authority to decide up on whether to live or not. They believe that the sole authority of one’s life is the person himself and hence he should be allowed to take decisions... and...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

How to Write an Essay - Should Euthanasia Be Approved By-Law

...Participation Participation A good Essay writing begins with an introductory clear thesis ment such as should Euthanasia be approved by law in the present scenario? A good essay never encourages personal opinions in the body but it takes into account ground realities through proper research. The essay then develops around this thesis statement scanning all pros and cons. A first body paragraph should list core points keeping in mind the thesis statement. Three to four strong points in its favor will develop the essay logically. Points that can be made in the case of euthanasia could be terminal illness and suffering of the patient seeking euthanasia; its social implications and economic fallouts for...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Child labor in India & Peru

...country with one of the worst records in terms of the child labor however its government is believed to be working towards the implementation of strategy to overcome this. What is critical to note that children in Peru are working under the hazardous conditions and are being employed mostly in the agriculture and mining sector? Recent data suggests that approximately 68% of the children under the working age are being employed in various sectors with majority being employed in the agriculture and mining sector. In agriculture sector, children are mostly assumed to be working for growing rice, sugarcane, barley and other crops indicating that the children may be involved in the hard labor wherein they...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Travel to Peru for Yoga

...and ease of acquisition come into play. For instance, you have a car and you want somebody to clean it every day (ideal situation) because you feel bad about cleaning it every-day (actual situation) so you decide to outsource the services of an individual or a specialized firm to do this task at whatever cost. You don’t judge how to reach this ideal situation. So you won’t have a purchase in this situation. Information Search This is the second most important element in the buying process of a consumer. Once the consumer had identified the need for a product, the consumer will explore possible solutions to the needed problem. They will look for more information or less information depending on the choices they need to...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Peru

...borders are drawn on natural resources and environment that overlap into one another. Such resources are often extracted for developmental gain although sometimes it may result in consequences such as pollution (Kauffer, 40). The consequences of extraction may cross the political boundary set and affect the neighboring states. Peruvian people and boundary have to be protected from the effects of resource extraction in the neighboring countries such as Brazil and Bolivia. The activities of Bolivia’s government on Lake Titicaca should not cause harm to the state of Peru and the population. The general assembly’s 6th committee should come up with more appropriate ways of preventing transboundary harm among...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Individual participation in the governments of China and Peru for FREE!

Contact Us