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Globalization and neoliberalism - Essay Example

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The author of this essay under the title "Globalization and neoliberalism" focuses on the social issues of globalization and neoliberalism. Reportedly, the American Indian culture is grounded on neoliberalism and globalization principles…
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Globalization and neoliberalism
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Globalization and Neoliberalism
The American Indian youth culture is a blend of American and Indian cultures. American culture is a concoction of local and international cultures. Under neoliberalism, the American Indians must implement economic theories to survive. Under globalization, the American Indians must tow the line tactfully in the globalized environment to survive. The American Indian culture is grounded on neoliberalism and globalization principles.
There are many paradoxes in Indian American Youth Culture. First, the interviewed Indian Americans grew up in the United States as children of Indian Immigrants.
Second, the Indian Americans have to cope with their dual identity. Within the American society, they consider themselves as Americans. With the Indian neighborhood, they act out their Indian culture. Specifically, the youth act out their Indian American youth culture. Such culture is characterized as musical and dance to the fusion of American hip hop, techno, and reggae with Hindi film music and bhangra. In addition, the Indian American youth they use Indian style nose rings and bindis to complete their cultural trimmings. The American Indians Indian body art to complete their Indian American description (Maira 33).
John Clarke, Stuart Hall, and other theorists belonging to the Birmingham school emphasized the American Indians create a unique culture by setting up social rituals which underpin their collective identity and define them as group. The group adopts and adapts material objects and acknowledges them in distinctive styles which express the collectivity embodied in rituals of relationship and occasion and movement. This can be called ritual. Ritual is used in the sense of cultural practice that makes an “agreement” between enduring cultural structures and the current situation.
The Birmingham theorists classified the second generation Indian Americans as a subculture. The latter blurred the link between the cultural construction of youth as a distinct category and the creation of a teenage market (Maira 34).
The Birmingham theorists emphasized the Indian youth culture are based on rituals that resist the values inherent in the dominant culture or the overall disposition of cultural power in society as a whole. The creation of a subculture is to comply with the personal, economic, and political crisis that American Indian youth are confronted as they reach adulthood.
David Harvey (Harvey 25) affirms the Maira theory of Neoliberalism. The American Indian youth must survive in the American Environment. To do so, the American Indian must comply with neoliberalism concepts. Under the concept, the American Indian “blends” into the American economic environment in order to survive. The American Indians must socially blend with the American culture to survive. The American culture is the mixture of home and international cultures.
Donald Boudreaux (Boudreaux 10) affirms the Maira theory of globalization. The American Indian blends with the cultures of the local and international culture because the environment is no longer bounded by one’s racial culture but by one global culture. This is the very essence of globalization. Everyone around the world, including the American Indians, must comply with a global culture in order to survive. Refusing to comply with the global culture will surely alienate and lead the American Indian detractor into isolation. Globalization entails entering into one communications venue where one can converse with another person around the world and be understood. The American Indian youth are burdened with the existing ideologies characterized as being as racialized, gendered, and classed with emphasis in striving to overcome being discriminated (Maira 34).
Based on the above discussion, the American Indian youth culture is a mixture of American and Indian cultures. American culture is a mixture of local and international cultures. Under neoliberalism, the American Indians are bound by economic forces to survive. Under globalization, the American Indians must act tactfully in the global environment where they belong to survive. Indeed, the American Indian culture is influenced by neoliberalism and globalization principles.
REFERENCE
Boudreaux, D. Globalization. New York: ABC Press, 2008.
Harvey, D. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford Press, 2007.
Maira, Sunaina: “Identity Dub: The Paradoxes of an Indian American Youth Subculture” Cultural Anthropology. Retrieved April 13, 2011 from < http://glmw.info/anthropology/files/Maira-Identity_Dub.pdf>Read More
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