UK Counter Terrorism Strategy, Protect: To Strengthen Our Protection against Terrorist Attack Table of Contents 1 Table of Contents 2 Definitions and Key Concepts Relating To Counter Terrorism 3 Review and Insight into the Effectiveness of Counter Terrorism Strategies 5 Protect Strand of CONTEST Strategy in Counter Terrorism and Its Applications 7 Analysis of Data Related to Counter Terrorism Strategy 10 Areas of Problem and Overcoming Strategies 14 References 21 Bibliography 27 Definitions and Key Concepts Relating To Counter Terrorism Terrorism is an inevitable fact of recent era which has engulfed the entire world within its cruel jaws…
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Counter-terrorism is described as the offensive policies intended to prevent, discourage, preempt and react towards the terrorists’ attacks (Independent Police Complaints Commission, 2005). In addition, counter-terrorism is also portrayed as the set of tactics employed for refusing an opponent from utilisation of terrorist-based techniques such as counter-air in diminishing terrorist attacks. It is one of the most commonly utilised methods or techniques of recent times in the United Kingdom to prevent and to impede the aggressive activities of individuals to accomplish political or personal objectives. It is mainly utilised by any government or military group in order to protect the citizens of an economy from terrorist attacks by employing techniques such as viewing the travellers of air flights with the help of video cameras, metal detectors and random patrolling among others (Mesquita, n.d.). Counter-terrorism is a part of ‘counter-insurgency’ doctrines. It includes varied types of political or military activities or approaches intended to oppose insurgency or violent actions in the communities of the UK (Boucek, 2008). It is mainly done to safeguard the citizens from diverse types of revolts through divide and rule tactic or armed suppression. Moreover, the counter-terrorism groups also utilise varied types of tactics and strategies in order to maintain security within the society of the UK such as oil spot, cordon and search, air-operations, Disengagement, De-radicalization and Rehabilitation (DDR) strategy and Prevention, Rehabilitation and Aftercare (PRAC) strategy among others (Benjamin, 2008). Oil Spot is a type of approach or tactic implemented by the counter-insurgent forces to move towards a secure area in order to protect their lives from terrorist attacks. Similarly, cordon and search is also another well-known military tactic, in which a specific area is thoroughly searched for weapons or insurgents (Singh, 2010). It is mainly done by military forces to rescue the citizens of that particular region. Disengagement, De-radicalization and Rehabilitation (DDR) strategy (Defenceviewpoints.Co.UK, 2012) is also referred as an armoury weapon which is utilised to renounce the terrorists from activities of radicalism and violence. It also includes implementation of varied types of rehabilitation programmes to assimilate previous terrorists to de-radicalize the causes of terrors from the society (Andrew, 2010). Consequently, PRAC strategy is also another most significant approach taken by the insurgency groups such as Counter Terrorism Command (CTC), Special Operation Branch (SO15), National Counter Terrorism Security Office (NaCTSO) to protect crowded places and borders. It is utilised to impede the spread of extremist ideologies within the periphery of the UK, in order to enhance safety and security, by reducing terrorism and violence (Whitehouse.Gov, 2011). Moreover, the government of the UK also implemented the policy of ‘
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A special, top secret court, termed as the FISA was crafted to hear appeals for such justifications. Safeguards were placed in a position to make certain that investigators following criminal issues did not
No nation is said to be immune from such threat. Even the stable, homogeneous society like Japan is vulnerable (Branscomb, 2004). For example, the religious sect Aum Shinrikyo made small quantities of several biological agents and successfully carried out an attack plan on the people in Tokyo subway.
National Strategy for Counter-terrorism
If it is part of a broader insurgent the terrorism, the counter insurgent doctrine may be partly based on the counter-terrorism, but economical, political and other measures that may tend to focus more on the security breach or insurgency than the actual terror act.
British citizens have been recruited by terror cells to carry out attacks from within. There have been numerous terror attack plots against UK citizens such as the London and Glasgow incidents of June 2007 and
The author states that California is also the economic hub of America and also houses the biggest number of important buildings, international corporations and film industry. After 9/11, US Patriotic Act was amended and renamed ‘USA Patriot and Terrorism Prevention Reauthorization Act’. There were introduced surveillance and detention of people.
If the citizen was a member of a foreign terrorist group, in a foreign country, or working for a foreign government, they could be considered an unlawful enemy combatant. An example is Jose Padilla, a US citizen charged in Chicago with aiding terrorists in the construction of a 'dirty bomb'.
Terrorism has caused wide ripples in the UK society in the last few decades. The UK society and government was affected initially by the Irish republican terrorism and later by Islamic terrorism. It is often seen that UK tastes its own medicine. Many are of the
The study also targets development of an understanding of how, and whether, target hardening helps reduce such fear of terrorist crime and what other methods and strategies are available to management to alleviate this fear among its employees.
Therefore, the review is organised to identify the constructs of terrorism, identify a psychological definition of 'fear of crime', followed by insights into situational crime prevention theory and the psychological impact of a terrorist attack.
Citizens from such countries under constant threat of terrorism undergo mental torture due to the repercussions of the act. Promotion of democracy and economic development remain the key strategy for countering terrorism. Economics
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