Reforms in correction department - Research Paper Example

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Reforms in Correction Department Reforms in Correction Department College Name Subject Abstract As regards to the murder of Marsha Wills in the Mermon Correctional Facility highlights how unsafe are the prisons in USA. The incident is showing that there are no adequate staffs to deal with situations and there is no security as inmates are freely allowed to gather in the prison chapel without adequate supervision…
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Download file to see previous pages Introduction A perfect recipe for violence is being provided by prisons in USA. With backgrounds of violent demeanor, thousands of prisoners are at a time made to reside in cramped quarters with the track record of violent demeanor. These prisoners, while incarcerated were not permitted to have sexual relationships with women, and they normally reside under highly restrictive scenarios. This makes them mentally sick. Occasionally, these restrictive conditions make them engage in collective violence as in the case of New York riot (1971), Attica riots, Atlanta riot (1987), Santa Fe, New Mexico (1980) riot, and riot in Lucasville, Ohio (1993). Some past empirical research suggests that magnitude of riots differ by prison administrative effectiveness, offenders’ age and correction institutional security design. (Maitland and Sluder, 1998, p55). Characteristics of the prison inmates determine their violent demeanor. According to Christopher Innes and Vicki Verdeyen(1997,p1), violent offenders in USA prisons can be classified as those who have accustomed to be violent and those who cannot control their violent demeanor due to their mental disorders and are violent and posses grave personality disorders.(Cole & Smith, 2007, p357). One sociological theory of crime advocates that attitudes of prisoners as a subculture of violence subsist among some racial, socioeconomic and ethnic groups. Violence is said to be required or expected or tolerable in this subculture, which is evident in the lower class and in its value systems. (Wolfgang and Ferracuti, 1967, p263). This research essay will make an earnest attempt to discuss the various issues like Overcrowding, staffing, improper funding, training/education, and communication witnessed in correctional system in the USA. Costing Cutting Strategies and Security Issues in USA Correction System At least, forty states in USA have reduced their budgets for corrections systems between 2009 and 2010. This is mainly due to financial constrains that is being witnessed by almost all states due to the recent financial crisis. The cost of maintaining an incarcerated prisoner in Maryland as of 2010 was estimated at $36,000 per annum whereas the annual cost of supervising a prisoner on parole or on probation was estimated at just $1850 per prisoner. There have been vociferous claims from some corners that by increasing the use of parole in Maryland jails and prison inmates could drastically reduce the related costs. As comparing to the other states in USA, Maryland prison reform was considered to be the most progressive prison systems prior to 1993, but now it has not maintained its pace with the prison reforms that is happening in other states. With robust vocational and educational program, Maryland prison system has adequate parole expectancy built into the system. A prisoner has been graded from maximum security to medium, work release, prerelease, family leave and eventually will get parole relief. (Dixon, Velazquez & Lomax, 2011). Prisons in USA, including Maryland have engaged in cost cutting strategies like downsizing salary of staffs, reduction in fringe benefits or overtime, reducing the prison programs and making changes in the food service. The average expenses on a prisoner cost about $29,000 per annum , ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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