The reporter states that Hamilton (2003) noted that Enron was established in the mid-1980s by Kenneth Lay after the merger of Houston Natural Gas with InterNorth. The hiring of Jeffrey Skilling as the finance boss led to the transformation of the organization’s culture…
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Hamilton (2003) attributed Enron’s failure to a culture of conceit that led the society in general and economists in specific to buy the idea that it had the capacity to handle complex corporate risks in a successful manner. As such, Enron’s corporate culture was less concerned about advancing the ethics of respect and honesty. These important values were overlooked in a systematic process which saw the firm shift its focus to the doctrine of subsidiarity and maximization of profits at any cost. By keeping each Enron division autonomous from the others, Hamilton (2003) noted that the financial manipulators and their closest internal associates only were aware of the bigger picture of Enron’s financial position.
I agree with Hamilton on the reasons for Enron’s downfall. This is especially true considering that overreliance on decentralization by a large company in an environment where there are inadequate operational and pecuniary controls is normally associated with failure. In addition, the seemingly diverted, hands-off company board including the chairman was a recipe for financial failure, as they could not initiate adequate checks and balances on the executive managers such as Skilling (Ailon, 2012). As a consequence, the accounting staffs, auditors, and company lawyers equally failed in their mandates. Eventually, the company’s complex financial records became so confusing to the public, the shareholders and even the spin-doctors, hence the failure.
In spite of Enron’s dramatic move to formally admit bankruptcy in 2001, the failure did not occur by accident. According to Temple (2014), there were several presuppositions to the event including a business culture that spawned greed and scam while maintaining cosmetic value rather than real value. Following the merger, the company’s assets tremendously expanded to an extent that it was ranked seventh among the top-ten American companies in terms of revenue. Managing the massive assets usually does not want any form of risky investments and misrepresentation of financial statements as Enron did before its collapse.
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Financial Risk Management
Many financial and non-financial organizations currently report the significance of value-at-risk (VaR), a risk that calculates for possible losses. Domestic uses of VaR and other complicated risk measures are on the increase in many financial institutions, where, for instance, a banks risk group can set VaR limits, both probabilities and amounts, for fund management and trading operations.
It was in the year 2008, during the global recession; J. P. Morgan Chase acquired Bear Stearns. Bear Stearns was ranked fifth amongst all American investment banks at the time of its downfall (Source Watch, n.d.). Improper financial risk management was the centre of the reason for its downfall.
79). In a number of these theoretical exemplars of financial or cost-effective procedures, their significance is very much considered when addressing them and looking for the appropriate solutions to block these risks. For instance, a number of risks or even all risks might be comprehensively removed (Dun & Bradstreet, 2006, p.
This report is aimed at demonstrating how futures contracts can be used as a hedging strategy that would also isolate profitable opportunity for the firm. This been achieved by taking a long position on futures contracts, and the hedging strategy turn out to be profitable for the firm.
Among such products financial derivatives are products that are extensively used (Bodnar, Graham, Harvey, & Marston, 2011). Derivatives, as the name implies, are financial products the value of which is derived from the other financial security. In addition to security based valuation, derivatives can also be developed based on the values derived from the any particular rate as well as index such as Interest Rate Swap etc (Cowell, 2006).
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The investors need to have diversified portfolio for reducing the performance risk. In a similar manner, it is essential for the financial institutions to implement effective risk management procedures and techniques for mitigating the financial risks. It is very important to reduce the credit risks and interest rate risks which can have negative impact on the performance of the financial institutions.
A very good example is of Honeywell Inc. Honeywell has used an overall annual aggregate retention to manage its risks rather than using separate retentions for each risk. This does not only reduce premiums paid to
financial crisis/ distress as ‘an event in which substantial losses at financial institutions and/or the failure of these institutions cause, or threaten to cause, serious dislocations to the real economy, measured in terms of output foregone.’ Financial malpractices at
The author states that the article is divided into a number of parts each of which has its own speciality. Section 1 looks at the various structures of the modern risk measurement systems. Of particular interest is the position-based risk measurement system that tackles the various drawbacks.
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