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One of such theories was developed by Marx, on what is popularly referred to as Marxism. The theory of human nature developed by Marx primarily criticizes the conception of capitalism and communism, which are popular political ideologies. On the other hand, Aristotle describes the human nature as one that is unique and is notable by diversity. This paper compares the views of human nature as described by Aristotle and Marx.
Aristotle maintains that man is naturally blind to morality, implying that human beings are amoral creatures. At the same time, Aristotle argues that man is born without knowledge and, therefore, morality cannot be a part of the human nature (Kupperman, 2010, p.4). In the course of his life, man continues to acquire the knowledge of morality. In this argument, Aristotle is not only making the argument that the nature of man is amoral but also the fact that morality is a post-acquired knowledge in the due course of life. The statement is backed by Aristotle’s later argument that wickedness is voluntary, and no man is born evil. It is the rational choices that human beings make after birth that make them either moral or immoral.
Another important aspect of the human nature put forward by Aristotle is the idea that man is a hedonistic being. This means that he can shun the pain and pursue pleasure by nature. The man described by Aristotle is capable of dreaming, sleeping, and is anxious about the old age. He also lives in a political state and is continually fascinated by the animal world. Man is also naturally religious and tends to look at heaven with hopes of a better destiny. Aristotle believes that man is a rational social animal and that both the body and the soul were essential parts of the nature of man (Ward, 2005, p.290). At the same time, Aristotle maintains that; without a society, man would not be human. The self is mainly discovered through the natural potentialities
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Yes, I agree with their believe that cruelty is part of human nature; however, I do not agree with their explanation that it is because subjects in the Milgram’s experiment acted as they did, and why none of the 38 people who witnessed and heard Kitty Genovese call for help did not respond to help or even call the police.
'Every human is indeed a slave of circumstances.' An honest man commits cruel or socially unacceptable acts mostly when situations compel him. Nobody steals things out of instinct or out of fashion. They do so for one fundamental reason that is they need it badly.
Despite certain similarities that were largely due to similar historic and intellectual context of the Enlightenment, the philosophers maintained dramatic differences in their views on social structure, political organization and the nature of human being.
Waltz elucidates that a world of iniquity and corruption cannot and does not have goodness as a natural and evident trope of human behaviour. There shall be people like the Stalin, Bin Laden's and the Idi Amin's whose natural violence can be curbed by violence alone.
He is the person who famously said that a great man is he who does not lose his child's heart.
Based on the philosophy of human nature from Confucian school of thought, Mencius (c.371 - c.289 B.C) developed his philosophy rooted in the principle that man by nature is good and remains so, as long as his wishes are fulfilled.
Social interaction is cultivated by how power or authority is wielded through integration or adaptation of legitimate laws in democratic regime or by rules imposed by monarchical leaders to its constituents (Fred, 1978).
Postmodern political structure however gave rise to the