Human Nature - Assignment Example

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It argues that, the motivations of every human being are motivated by the pursuit of self-interests, whether knowingly or unknowingly…
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Human Nature
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Question One Psychological egoism purports that all human beings are inherently born with the urge to pursue interests that are beneficial to themselves. It argues that, the motivations of every human being are motivated by the pursuit of self-interests, whether knowingly or unknowingly. Simply, human beings are only interested in pursuing things that serve their specific end goals, all the time. The concept is related to ethical egoism in that, both suggest that human beings act out of self-interest. However, under ethical egoism, self-interest is desirable if in some instances, human beings restrain themselves from pursuing their interest if it results in- harming others, or when it results in aiding other human beings (Williams 102).
In the context of the criminal justice system, the concepts of ethical and psychological egoism are very applicable. For instance in the prisoner’s dilemma, where two convicts are given choices to pursue self-interests that may result in them serving minimal, moderate or maximum sentences.
Question Two
I would take pity on the parolee because her actions seem to be motivated by a greater sense of duty to her children, who cannot fend for themselves in her absence. My motivation for feeling pity on her would be the sense of altruistic feeling I would get from not uprooting her family. My motivations are in contrast with Hobbes’ assumption, that even seemingly altruistic behavior has self-serving purposes. On the contrary, it is because I already place value in helping the less privileged and the feeling of happiness, due to helping others, is a by-product of the action and not the main agenda.
Question Three
As a servant of the law, the police officer is bound by rules and ethical conducts of the police force, whose primary aim is an obligation to protecting the people from harm while upholding the law. The officer has an ethical and legal duty to the public and by illegally ‘planting’ evidence to arrest the seemingly guilty sexual offender, the officer has accomplished his ethical duty to the public, by protecting potential victims. By using illegal means for the greater good of the community, the officer has done the right thing. Additionally, the officer does not seem to benefit from the arrest and has in fact risked his freedom, to pursue justice on behalf of the victims and families of sexual abuse. His sole aim is upholding justice and helping others.
Question Four
The motivations that informed the newspaper’s decision to run the story are- correcting the injustice against the wrongfully convicted man, bolstering its sales, creating awareness of the case and increasing the popularity of the newspaper amongst the population.
Therefore, in accordance to moral sensibilities, the actions taken by the newspaper are moral. Even though the newspaper’s interest seem to be primarily self-serving, they are in fact helping the aggrieved party, the wrongfully convicted man, by creating awareness regarding such cases and help others who might be in similar situations.
Question Five
In our present times, capitalism is the most prevalent form of conducting business. All companies place emphasis on maximizing their profits and increasing the wealth of the shareholders, above everything else. Therefore, Enron is just an example of what companies have been doing. Companies exploit others to achieve these financial goals and it clearly illustrates that the mutual advantage system is ineffective. Since most corporations do not adhere to the rules and obligations set by the mutual advantage mechanism, additional measures should be developed.
In order to reduce further harm perpetrated by the companies, governments should introduce very hefty fines and jail sentences to all employees and management staff that collude to defraud shareholders and harm hard-working, law abiding employees.
Works Cited
Williams, Christopher, and Arrigo Bruce. Ethics, Crime and Criminal Justice System (2nd ed). PH Professional Business, 2012. Print. Read More
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