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Carr talks about the science of international politics by stating how over the past years international politics had changed. He also talks about improved times hence the popularization of international politics. Carr goes a notch further to describe the purpose and…
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SUMMARY Edward H. Carr talks about the science of international politics by stating how over the past years international politics had changed. He also talks about improved times hence the popularization of international politics. Carr goes a notch further to describe the purpose and analysis of international politics in political science through the use of several other theories including Marx capital theory.
Carr further describes the role of Utopianism (Primitivity) to the development of international politics in relation to the lack of knowledge. The impact of Realism has been described as a transition period to reality.
An analysis of Utopia and Reality is analyzed through the implication of the differences between Utopia and reality. The difference is from another thesis like ‘Free will and determination’, ‘Theory and Practice’, ‘The intellectual and the Bureaucrat’, ‘Left and Right’, ‘Ethics and politics’.
Andreas Osiander on his article “Twentieth Century International Relations Theory; Idealism revisited” presents a revision of idealist writers. The revised writers focus their understanding of international relations on a standard pattern. The pattern in this question is the ‘Realist’ theory. The most significant difference between Idealism and Realism is in their historical theories. The similarity is that both came about as a result of industrialization. The idealist thinking envisions two views; a newer democratic world that is better suited for functional reasons in the industrial generation than in the traditional generation. The other envisioned thinking by idealist is the particular view of power politics problems got from the fact that the traditional order cannot be instantly displaced but through a long transitional phase.
With reference to the works of Hedley Bull, there exist two international relations theories. The first one is the classical approach while the second is the scientific approach, but we shall focus on the first one. The scientific approach to the theory of the scientific approach is also present in the theory of international systems as stated by Morton A. Kaplan alongside many more others. A Classical approach is based on the existing situation. It is thus desirable if we reject the scientific approach and formulate other objections. However, the scientific approach is most likely to provide very little substantial data towards international relations although it later displaces the classical approach. Bull has also used the work of Thomas Schelling, who has significantly contributed to the international relation theory.
According to the works of Morton A. Klaplan, on matters of traditionalism and international relation science, they critically examine differences between traditionalism and science. Morton states that in several cases scientists have been right but provided faulty explanations. The primary assertion held by the traditionalist against new science models is that scientists were more likely to mistake the models for reality. This is backed up by Bull’s criticism of the new scientific approaches that are based on the methodology used. While he admits to the lack of information by the traditionalists in criticizing new methods, he fails to draw the inference from his evidence.
Morton criticizes traditionalist’s criticism by stating the use of philosophy for the analysis of international politics. Kaplan concludes his work by noting that traditionalists had mistaken explicit heuristic models for dogmatic assumptions. While calling for historical research they fail to recognize the repeat of newer approaches that is through the undisciplined speculation (Kaplan and Katzenbach, p.96).
Work cited
Kaplan, Morton A, and Nicholas B. Katzenbach. The Political Foundations of International Law. New York: Wiley, 1961. Print. Read More
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