The Human Genome Project (HGP) is one of the most important projects in the history of mankind which will provide considerable benefits to entire humanity as the sequencing of human genomes will generate break through advances in the field of medicine. Thus the HGP is a sponsored program of the Department of Energy and National Institutes of Health Genome Programs as a national effort which planned to categorize all human genetic information by totally identifying the sequence of the DNA in the human genome…
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The private sector also pursues only those projects which do not need extensive investments over a prolonged period, can generate profits within a reasonable time and do not have long gestation period.. Public enterprises on the other hand cannot be seen to operate only under consideration of profit and have to act in the interest of the larger public good. However efficiencies in the public sector are limited as incentives and motivations do not encourage a culture of efficiency and urgency. While keeping in view its importance, the HGP has to be pursued with greater speed and exigency. This entails a private and public partnership which can seek the benefits of both the sectors and has been the trend in pursuance of the HGP.
Thus there are a number of privately funded concerns such as Celera Genomics and Incyte who are involved in the HGP while international and national government bodies such as the National Institute of Health, US Welcome Trust, and Sanger Institute in the UK are also very intimately involved in these projects. A similar initiative in the international field is the pursuance of the Human Genome Initiative or HGI which is attempting to map a comprehensive genetic and physical mads for every single human chromosome for all the known 24 ones and also evolve a total DNA sequence of the human genome. This is also following a private-public partnership based on complexity of the project and need for greater impetus.
The HGP is a project with extensive applications in wide ranging fields such as clinical medicine, agriculture and livestock, industrial processes, environmental biotechnology and DNA finger printing. (Giants, 2005). Most of the research is pioneering with limited precedence. The economic benefit of a private-public partnership is particularly evident in the HGP. This requires very heavy investments which have a long period of gestation. The public sector has the capacity to absorb such long term investments easily as financing of public projects is made on a long term basis. However there are limitations to which specific projects can be financed by public funds and there are invariably far too many caveats for expenditure of public money. This shortcoming of public funding can be overcome by use of private investments. Thus venture capitalists, investors and stock owners can be brought in to invest in projects as they are willing to put in money in companies which are profit making. The HGP is considered a highly lucrative project commercially and has numerous spin offs and hence a large number of companies are willing to invest in these projects. It is estimated by Nature magazine that the bioinformatics industry will have an output in excess of $1 billion per year. (Nature, 2001). Thus the scale of investments that can come in through these private and public partnerships is very high and cannot be envisaged if these are undertaken only through initiatives by either of the sectors.
Overcoming Bureaucratic Restrictions of the Public Sector
Another advantage of the private sector is its ability to tap
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(Human Genome Project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words)
“Human Genome Project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/science/1529897-human-genome-project.
This paper introduces the Human Genome Project, with a brief history of its creation and a summary of its main aims and achievements thus far. There is then a consideration of the social, ethical and economic implications of genetic research. Social implications include major advances in medical treatments, but also changes in people’s attitudes and behaviour due to new procedures like testing when symptoms arise or screening before any disease syptoms are apparent.
Scientists and policymakers alike are testifying to the potential benefits of the human genome project. But ethicists and theologians are opposing the project based on the ethical concerns it raises. This essay tries to answer three of the major questions the human genome project poses: (1) What will the world look like in regard to genetic testing, genetic engineering, and cloning; (2) can the information learned from the Human Genome Project be used to eradicate disease; (3) what are the ethical implications and how might this power be misused?
The human genome project represents an effort to determine more than 3 billion nucleotides located within the human genome and to identify the genes that are present. Before the project was initiated, the US Department of Energy supported work that was done in the course of several years, which culminated with initiative given by the Department of Energy in 1986.
and there are issues of bioethics that surround it because some people think that the project will lead to eugenics and the formation of structural inequality theory based on genetics. “Yet despite this impact on society as a whole, legislation on the regulation of
Between the genome decoding and the appearance of new wonder, medicine is a great distance to reach. Usually, it takes about 10-12 years to test, to create the proper medicaments, and to release them on sale. However, what we have today, is the decoded genome only, and the human body contains about 30 000 different genes.
The author asserted that decoding the human genome would result in better understanding and advantages for human health. However, some scientists opposed the move fearing that this kind of project would lead to a product that would be of little benefit to human beings. The Human Genome Project began in 1990.
Abnormal pairing or alteration in pairing of DNA bases results to varieties of genetic complications, which can be inheritable. Several studies have been carried in an attempt to explore more about genome. Various institutions and projects have, thus, been
The level of the SHGB, whether low or high, determines the quantity of the bioavailable testosterone. This makes the assessment of the gene levels among patients undergoing tests for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) very important. The aims of this project entail; the
Genetic test records may form the basis of decisions made by parities such as insurers and employers and this negatively affects the people with the “wrong gene” (Schoonmaker and Williams 30).
The groups working
It is also creating novel personalized ways of treating common diseases. The varied disorders that have genetic bases and that may accrue a viable treatment from the human genome project are heart diseases, diabetes, asthma, cancer, hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, and
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