This paper "History of Anthropological Thought - Functionalism and Marxist Anthropology" focuses on anthropologists who have explored and considered religion and society for years. These two basics have been the focal point of various ethnographies and articles written by anthropologists. …
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The word 'mangu' means 'witchcraft' and to some extent witchcraft and sorcery are alike. Both have general purposes, but their practices are different. Witchcraft was said to be a 'psychic power which often inherited, it can be activated if the owner became angry or jealous, and this power is normally unconscious as well as limited to those with the substance in their body. Sorcery is skill, which can be learnt by anyone and can be passed on through study. This skill also knows as "black magnetic" which can be defined as the evil use of medicines' (Evans-Pritchard, 1937, p.42). Both are used for destructive private ends against the lives and possessions of law-abiding people.
The centre of this book is the three oracles of the Azande in Sudan. These being in the order of decreasing significance: the poison oracle, the termite oracle, and the rubbing board oracle. Amongst the Azande, witchcraft is viewed as the main hazard. They are sure that witchcraft can be inherited and that a person can be a mage, making others harm, without understanding her or his impact.
Anthropologists have had the long disagreement concerning the nature and importance of beliefs in witchcraft and magic and, in particular, concerning the rationality of the witchcraft beliefs. Evans-Prichard underlines that they are rational since they are very utilitarian an, they are the mighty mechanism of the social top of a hierarchy. Evans-Pritchard provides a sociological model of such beliefs, he proves that they are what the chief needs to maintain submission and keep people in constant fear. That is the importance of such beliefs for the whole community; without them, the structure if the community itself will be destroyed, and a community would parish to the extent of values and culture. In addition, beliefs are important since they explain to them many things and give the image of the person who is 'omnipotent' and who can help in any trouble as well as make a great harm.
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Machiavelli scholar Mattingly argues about the Discorsi that Machiavelli actually being a social satirist: The reputation of Niccolo Machiavelli rests on a curious paradox, a paradox so conspicuous and so familiar that we have almost entirely forgotten it.
The common preferences of the people influence these rules of conduct in the same way that those, in turn, influence the behavior of the people. Social structures govern social life. Although it is not visible, its influence is noticeable in the traditions, behavior, and cultures of the society (Jones, 2003, p.7).
This theory also focuses on the role of exchange and circulation of commodities in the creation of wealth (Vaggi 2003, p.6). Vaggi also notes that Mun saw domestic trade as a way of redistributing the acquired wealth. The first notable mercantile ideal was the need to acquire overseas colonies.
In the late 19th and early of 20th century, it was noted to be different from other social science studies because of its focus on cultural relativity. Anthropology has four related fields which includes Physical Anthropology which is focused on the physical aspect of a human being, the Socio-cultural Anthropology which is about the culture and the organization of a certain group, Linguistic Anthropology that studies the human language and how it evolved with time and society, and the last which is Archaeology or the study of the past which literally digs out remains of human beings so as to be analyzed and dated.
This paper provides a biographical overview of Bentham and analysis of the cultural context of his works. Moreover, this paper discusses the key themes he developed as well as his major contributions that brought about legal and political reforms that enriched modern social thought.
The bottom-to-top idea of development was not without merit since it presumed that once the poorer hinterlands grew, the richer cities would follow. But this economic strategy soon fell into disfavor among the intelligentsia who thought that agriculture should have received greater attention because, compared to the somewhat limited market of manufactures, agricultural products could supply the needs of a bigger number of people.
His magnificent theories and wonderful works have left indelible imprints on the future generations, and urged the suppressed classes strive against the exploitations of the dominant, powerful and influential groups and communities in order to evade mistreatment of the “haves-not” at the hands of the “haves”.
Anthropology, etymologically, means the study of man. Imperialism refers to the rule of a country over another by taking over the political, cultural and economic life of the subordinate country. It has been argued that colonial domination has a significant role in the
m mainly focused on how modern, capitalist, and secular societies managed to be stable despite the decline of the church nobility and the ruling elites of the older days. Durkheim argued that specialization, division of labor, and diversity characterized the modern society
According to Functionalism, “The consensus approach”, institutions of learning are probed to uncover their societal responsibilities and roles. They believe that an institution exist in a society for a particular reason. Assumption by the Functionalist is that some societal needs are served by the educational institutions.
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