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The Contributions Made by the Biological and Cognitive Approaches to our Understanding of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder - Term Paper Example

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The author describes contributions made by biological and cognitive approaches to our understanding of the obsessive-compulsive disorder. Compulsions are voluntary reactions to obsessions. It is necessary for a compulsion to be a part of OCD that it should occur in response to an obsession…
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The Contributions Made by the Biological and Cognitive Approaches to our Understanding of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
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Download file to see previous pages Sometimes the strategies are covert, short and GO unnoticed. These various neuropsychiatric and psychological disorders are collectively referred to as Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorder (OCSDs) (Abramowitz, 2006 p37).
Jakes (1996) has compiled diagnostic features of obsession from literature and provided nine criteria to identify these in OCD. Very similar definitions are provided in DSM-III-R and by Rachman and Hodgson (1980). If these are combined with other definitions, the diagnostic features of obsession are as follows:
Evidence support that OCD is linked to distinct patterns of brain dysfunction. Abramowitz (2006) also posts in a neuroanatomical hypothesis that obsession and compulsions are caused by structural and functional deformities in the brain. Antony & Stein (2008) have explained that altered activity was observed in the brain, particularly in the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the basal ganglia (mainly the caudate) and hippocampus. Many theories conclude that this dysfunction makes thoughts and stimuli to persist and become obsessions since the brain fails to reset the state of thinking. These obsessions then become compulsion as actions become repetitive. The neuroanatomical explanation of the development of OCD concerns orbitofrontal frontal cortex and basal ganglia especially the striatum. Kaplan (2009, 1) referred to a number of researches showing the role of these parts of the brain. The orbital cortex is responsible for stimulating a "worry circuit" consisting of the "caudate nucleus, a part of the basal ganglia that helps in switching gears from one thought to another; the cingulate gyrus, which jerks the gut with fear, and the thalamus, which processes the body's sensory inputs". The possible sequence of events in OCD may begin from thalamus processing the sensory images which are coming to the brain from the rest of the body, while the Caudate nucleus controls and filters the sensory information and thoughts. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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