Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the distressing psychological conditions that can manifest at an age as early as 4. OCD in childhood is a chronic and distressing condition. The lifetime prevalence is 2- 3 percent (Piacentini and Bergman 1181)…
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Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the distressing psychological conditions that can manifest at an age as early as 4. OCD in childhood is a chronic and distressing condition. The lifetime prevalence is 2- 3 percent (Piacentini and Bergman 1181). Estimates of point prevalence indicate that at any given moment of time, 0.5-1 percent of population falling into pediatric category suffers from this condition (Freeman 337). Many children develop impairment of social, family and academic functioning. In addition to these problems, many of them have comorbid conditions like depression, anxiety and other illnesses. Infact, some studies have reported that 75- 84 percent of children suffering from OCD have comorbid disorders (Freeman 337). Traditionally, this condition was neglected, especially in children. However recent recognition of the condition has led to enhanced understanding of various treatment modalities (Piacentini and Bergman, 1181). Comorbidity with anxiety disorders and depression is common even in children and it is very important to identify these condition and also treat then, failing to do which can influence treatment and outcomes negatively (Piacentini and Bergman, 1182). The most well-tolerated treatments for OCD in children are serotonin-reuptake inhibitors SSRI and CBT (Piacentini and Bergman, 1181). Early onset OCD has some unique features which are different from adult-onset or adolescent OCD, having some implications for treatment too (Freeman et al, 71). The phenomenology is consistent across all age spans, however, traditional adult CT approaches have been modified to accommodate developmental differences which exist. In this research article, critical review of CBT in young children with OCD will be done through review of suitable literature. Critical review OCD that manifests in early childhood can be pernicious in nature and can cause severe functional impairment and derailment of normal development. Early onset OCD coincides with the beginning of formal education and difficulties related to OCD during this period can have a devastating consequence on relationships with peers and academic performance (Freeman 337). Thus, it warranted to provide early and frequent intervention to facilitate development of coping skills and also to minimize the anxiety levels of the child that many interfere with learning. There is actually not much research pertaining to treatment of OCD in this age group. Because of this, it is very important to take into account the type of treatment that is most appropriate for children who are young. According to Expert Consensus Guidelines and AACAP, the beginning treatment for all children with OCD must be either CBT alone, or a combination of CBT and SSRI drug, depending of the severity of symptoms and comorbid conditions (Freeman 338). Though SSRI drugs have good outcomes for OCD symptoms, very few drugs have been approved by FDA for use in children less than 8 years of age. Also, the rates of adverse drug reactions and variables of duration of treatment and moderators are poorly understood. For these reasons, CBT, rather than pharmacotherapy or a combination of pharmacotherapy and CBT has been treatment of choice in younger children with OCD (Freeman 338). Research pertaining to CBT in children with OCD had been done only since few years. On review of literature pertaining to CBT in children with OCD, Freeman (p.339) identified 3 major gaps with reference to CBT for OCD in young children. One is the age of participants, the next is the role of SRI in the context of CBT and the third is the use of family-based CBT for therapy. With regard to age, Freeman (p.339) opined that there are actually no studies that have specifically studied CBT for application in children less than 7 years of age. Infact most studies have focused on age groups 7- 18 years. Although, these studies are a useful starting place for research pertaini
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In order to be diagnosed with OCD, an individual must present with recurrent obsessions and/or compulsions that are severe enough to cause marked impairment in everyday functioning. Obsessions are defined as persistent ideas, thoughts, impulses, or images that are perceived as intrusive or unwarranted, and lead to marked anxiety or distress.
The disorder affects up to three percent of the population and affects both genders equally, with a modal onset of six to fifteen years of age for males and twenty to twenty-nine for females (Bjorgvinsson, Hart, & Heffelfinger, 2007; Bjorgvinsson et al., 2008).
These repetitive behaviors or recurring impulsive tendencies are called compulsions, which without cause come as a natural reflex to the afflicted individual. Most obsessive thoughts are centered on things or subjects that a person is not at ease with. An example is an individual who thinks that her house is full of dirt and dust that will trigger her allergies despite the true fact that the house in question is spotless.
In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) (APA, 2000), OCD is classified as an anxiety disorder. The condition is characterized by obsessive thoughts that are distressing and intrusive, and involve clinically significant repetitive compulsive actions.
There are a myriad of treatments for OCD including behavioral therapy pharmacological therapy, group therapy, and cognitive therapy. Each therapy differs in terms of its approach and its effectiveness. Some patients may have to try several therapies before finding the one that will work for them so that they will either be able to manage their symptoms or overcome them completely.
An ideal example is an individual who has immense fear of germs. Such a person will be afraid of opening doors or of shaking people’s hands. It is an ordinary thing for people to check and make sure that door locks have been securely locked, but when a person does this too many times than he or she should, then this might be symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder.
Like many other mental illnesses treatment includes drug therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy or a combination of both. Alternative herbal remedies also seem to have some benefits.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
The thoughts and actions are uncontrollable even when the individual is aware of them. OCD is one of the common mental disorders with about two percent of the United States of America adults suffering from the disorder. It affects people of all ages including children and
In most of the time, the affected individuals will be uneasy (Cunningham, 2013). This reaction deems to reduce the anxiety that is linked to the disorder. Apparently, an obsession is stated as an unpleasant thought that a person
In addition to them, there are also secondary symptoms, such as phobias, depression, sleep disturbances, sexual disturbances, anger, tic disorders etc. For today, specialists have not differentiated the certain causes of OCD; however, the available data
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