When the European Union enlarged its membership southward to cover such countries as Greece, Portugal and Spain in the 1980s it altered EU's economic geography and budgetary structure some but the process was smooth and painless overall. These new partners, although struggling with their incomes, had more or less the same economic structures as most of the old EU members…
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Following the launch of the euro as EU's common currency, the EU found it necessary to shift its attention to the East. The decision to enlarge EU membership to Eastern European countries was finalized in 2002 and its first phase would have been carried out between 2004 and 2006. Here, EU negotiates what analysts perceive as a bumpy road.
belonged to the former communist bloc which just emerged from half a century of Soviet domination. Throughout this long period, they operated on a planned economy and it is only now that they are moving in unison towards a market economy. As a lingering effect of a less efficient economic system, their incomes are much lower than those of existing EU members. This poses a problem to the process of harmonizing the entry of these countries into EU.
EU enlargement to Eastern Europe will boost the European common market from 320 million people to about 470 million. Unlike Switzerland, Norway and Iceland which joined only EU's free trade area, the Eastern European countries need to be full EU members or they will not enjoy the promised benefits. This entails huge costs on the part of the new members.
Eastern Europe is a low-income region of about 100 million people whose combined income will raise the GDP of EU by a mere 5 per cent. This is very much less than the result of previous EU expansions to the North and South. It is not only their low income levels that may bring deleterious effects to EU but also the fact that these countries are in the middle of a transition phase from a centrally planned to a market economy. In addition, the new members will have to cope with more EU regulations than before because of the recent creation of the Single European Market concept.
Although many of the former communist bloc countries are convinced of the superiority of the free market, some have retained their faith in the socialist system and in the role of government in steering economic growth. Thus, many of them continue to bring up the rear on the list of world's freest economies. In the 2003 Economic Freedom of the World Report, only Estonia made it to the16th rung. Hungary was 35th, Czech 39th and Latvia 51st. At the bottom of the list were Bulgaria at 103rd place, Russia 112th, Romania 116th and Ukraine 117th. (Tupy, L., 2003)
Initially, liberalization of these economies pushed output down, but they gradually recovered. By 2002, their separate GDPs grew as foreign investment started to come in. During that year, the World Bank reported that Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Sloavakia led the pack with an average 2.3 per cent growth.
Poland is the largest of these former communist bloc countries and may prove to be of strategic importance to EU since it is the gateway of Western Europe into the large Eastern European countries of Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine. (Mind Your Business, 2004) The other big countries in the East that are slated to join EU are Russia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Romania, Hungary, Slovenia and Slovakia.
Signs that Poland is a possible problem child for EU became evident as soon as the homeland of the beloved Pope John Paul II took the first step of joining the union in May 2004. Polish
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The conclusion from this study states that fears regarding expansion are statistically baseless. Membership to the European Union offers great benefit for newly inducted countries, with minimal to no impact on preexisting ones. Fears regarding political or economic unrest are largely unfounded, and so must be eliminated rather than acting upon them.
The increase of the number of member states, through a series of enlargement processes, gave to the Union the power required in order to intervene drastically in conflicts and negotiations developed in the international community. However, the effective completion of these enlargements required the introduction of differentiations in the Union’s politics and policy processes.
Hence, this paper examines the major contributions of Byzantium Empire to the present day Eastern Europe and Russia. Furthermore, the study will also focus on the social and cultural impacts of post-communist transitions in the former communist states of Eastern Europe and
The eastern European region is not as wealthy as the rest of the European Union. Eastern Europe is composed of 14 countries. The 14 countries that composed Eastern Europe are Russia, Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Moldova, Croatia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Ukraine and Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro and Albania.
The EU is built with a series of treaties made with its different member states. Historically, the EU was formed to promote peace and economic prosperity especially in Europe after the occurrence of World War II. Since the beginning of the 1950s, the integration of Europe has significantly augmented to entail conducting various financial activities like developing a single market in which goods, capital and people moves freely, a common trade policy, an ordinary agriculture policy, environmental policy and common currency (Euro) which is being used by 17 member states (Archick, 2013).
The European Union has been expanding constantly since the early 1970s with each round of enlargement being unique and dynamic politically and economically. The European Union easily welcomes any European state that is deemed to be democratic, has a market economy, and has an administrative capacity to handle obligations and rights of theirs membership.
Secondly structural constraints associated with enlargement have forced the member countries to adopt more flexible ways of adjustment. The rapid expansion of the EU in the recent years after the collapse of the former Soviet bloc has created a series of problems.
According to the report the background to enlargement is explained in the first section. The reasons for supporting this policy position are explained in the next section. The recommendations for the future course of action for the EC are given in the last section. The European Union started as a six nation economic community in 1958.
Besides, the 2010th may be a timeline for further enlargement as Ukraine, Turkey and former Yugoslavia republics (Serbia and Montenegro, Macedonia and Bosnia and Herzegovina) are also standing in queue (Archick, 2005).
Historically, each stage if EU enlargement used to cause the "displacement of powers" on the continent.
Marain (2003:2) during policy analysis of EU enlargement found that the countries becoming the member states are entitled to have numerous benefits which includes removal of barriers from trade, investment and movement of labor, exchange of technological ideas, improvement in competition with foreign markets, corporate accountability, improved CEEC's as a destination of foreign investment, cheaper consumer goods, etc.1 But it had some drawbacks as well.
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