The following essay will discuss theories of nature and development of European integration. They include functionalism, Neo-functionalism, federalism, Intergovernmentalism, policy networks, multilevel governance, and institutionalism theory…
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From the research it can be comprehended that the Regional integration process in Europe has unfolded at an unsteady and unpredictable pace and in unexpected directions, regardless of the once confident predictions of the classical paradigms to the contrary. The flux in community affairs makes real difficulties for those whose task is to uncover and explain the process. Developments so far have certainly carried the European process across the minimalist threshold that demarcates integration from mere intergovernmental cooperation, without realizing is the ambitious goal to an immensely complex process of political change. Radical changes have characterized European politics in the recent years. Various scholars have been poised with the question of whether there is a single theory that tries to explain the nature and development of European Union. Indeed, there is no single-defined theory that explains this phenomenon. The processes of democratization and state consolidation have, immensely, affected the politics in the society—the perception and undertaking of regional politics have changed due to international developments. The continuity of European integration process has made the European Union an increasingly influential political actor. Federalism’s contribution to the development of European integration turned out, then, to be much less significant than might have been anticipated in the earlier years. (Jones, 2001). The constraints of national politics, the residue appeal of the national interests underpinned by a revived continuing sense of national identity were the vital factors towards European integration. In addition, the unpredictable impact of events and the movement’s failure in these fluid circumstances to convert public opinion to its cause, led to deep internal tensions that eventually engulfed the movement in debilitating factional squabbles (Pallemaerts, 2006). The trend in integration theory is towards less dogmatic explanations of integration events and processes. Recent approaches tend to disclaim the view that the Union’s path of development was inevitable, or that its future can be confidently predicted. They tend to lay greater stress than earlier theories upon the choices available to governments and upon the influence of international events and circumstances. Newer theories are also more eclectic than the old, drawing upon various schools of thought. As such, Grand theories, which seek to provide a comprehensive explanation of the EUs nature and development, have tended to be replaced by ‘middle range’ theories (Archer, 2000). There are an increasing number of these theories, meaning that the study of the EU is becoming increasingly fragmented. Functionalism theory favors the strategy of gradually undermining state sovereignty, by encouraging technical cooperation in policy areas across the state boundaries. The founding father of the functionalist school was David Mitrany (1966), a Romanian born-scholar who taught for many years at the London School of Economics. He regarded nationalism as the biggest threat to the world peace and favored a shift in human loyalties from the national to the international level. This was achieved through mutually beneficial international cooperation in sectors such as transport, agriculture, science and health. Mitrany’s ideas rest on the assumption that governments are less able to meet the welfare needs of their citizens than ‘non-political’ international authorities. People would, therefore, become more committed to
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This is different from the concept of indirect effect which refers to the reliance on EU sources of law in the interpretation of national laws.2 Direct effect is also different from direct applicability as the latter refers to sources of international law that are directly applicable without the necessity of implementation into national law.3 Horizontal direct effect, or the “incidental effect” occurs when EU law has direct effect between private parties within the EU.4 The direct effect of EU primary law such as non-discrimination within the original treaty will have direct effect between private parties.5 Direct effect is referred to as the principle of effete utile and is designed to
As such, the European Union (EU) falls under public international law since it involves different states. This is clearly outlined by the European Union (2013) when it states that “the European Union is based on the rule of law. This means that every action taken by the EU is founded on treaties that have been approved voluntarily and democratically by all EU member countries.” As such, this part of the paper seeks to outline the development of the EU and how its operations have contributed to development of international among the member states.
There is quite an elongated roll of high historical characters, which, in pretty diverse ways, trailed an idea of integrated Europe. These personalities are Charlemagne, Napolen, Charles V, and Metternich. Incidentally, even the infamous and notorious personages as Adolf Hitler, did intend to deliver a wicked thought of one Europe.
The political rights of the representatives of the minority communities have been subdued. The European countries are democratic countries, and the notion of democracy protects the interests and rights of the local community. The principle of democracy echoes the voice and representation of the majority and minority communities.
In the case of Turkey, the prime focus has been to initiate reform efforts in a number of areas so as to achieve the required eligibility status for the membership. On the other hand, the European Union has been constantly monitoring the progress made by Turkey and has been affecting legislations and concessions that would help encourage Turkey hasten the process of reforms that would help speed up its pace of induction into the club.
Chabot stated that this revolution involves the solidification of a European market of goods and services, major structural changes in countries plagued by fiscal negligence, and the reorganization of monetary policy in some of the world’s most advanced industrialized economies. The “European Single Market” is “the world’s largest domestic market”.
As part of the enlargement process for the now 25-member European Union, its membership is expected to expand to 30 or 35 by 2020, with the western Balkan countries as the final joiners (Batora, 2007). The idea may be hinged on the dictum that there is strength in numbers. This actually gives expression to the founding philosophy of EU.
he Common Agricultural Policy, Competition Policy, Science and Technology Policy, Regional Policy and Social Policy and their resultant outcomes are described briefly in the following sections.
The CAP of the European Union has undergone several significant reforms since the
The European Union has various activities including the most important of all – a common single market. This market consists of a common agricultural policy, common fisheries policy, customs union and single currency adopted by twelve of the twenty-five member states.
Globally, countries and continents are engaging in bilateral or multi-lateral trade partnerships for the benefit of its trading partners. The need for the formation of economic and trade unions is prompted by the fact that these countries have different forms of economic and resource endowments thereby creating relative and comparative trade advantages.
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