Interventional MR Systems Abstract This research paper is aimed at explaining the technology of interventional magnetic resonance imaging or iMRI. The technique has been described in detail followed by different varieties and examples of iMRI applications…
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The most critical challenges in using this technique have thus been discussed followed by a conclusion. Keywords: Interventional MR, iMRI, intraoperative MRI, MRI, Magnetic Resonance, Operating Room, imaging Table of Contents: Introduction 3 Definition and Classification 3 Classification 5 Safety Considerations 7 Advancements 8 Improved MR scanner 8 Interventional pulse sequencing and adaptive imaging 9 MR compatible instruments, tracking and visualisation 9 Augmented reality introduced in surgical system 11 Challenges 12 Conclusion 14 References 15 Introduction Magnetic resonance or MR techniques are extensively used in the medical world for imaging purpose. Magnetic resonance imaging or MRI is reliable, precise and detailed. Also, advanced MRI implementation can culminate at three dimensional or 3D view of a patient’s tissue system. Previous to the development of interventional MRI or iMRI, most of the existing medical imaging technologies were primarily used for the purpose of diagnostic processes. But MRI proves to be more reliable than even the most advanced technologies like computerised tomography or CT scan (Blanco Sequeiros et al 2005). Therefore, experts are now considering expanded intraoperative usage of MR technologies, and iMRI has become a prime area of research in this field. In this paper, iMRI is defined and classified in a detailed manner. Next, safety considerations are discussed. After that, important advancements in the field of iMRI are discussed. Contextually, challenges in the way of optimizing iMRI are detailed. The paper ends in a concise conclusion. The overall discussions in this paper are focussed on iMRI and the technology of magnetic resonance is elaborated wherever deemed necessary. Definition and Classification Initially, magnetic resonance imaging or MRI was utilised to find out and examine greater intricacies of tissue structure. The primary aim was to understand patient morphology with the help of case specific details in furtherance with increase in scientific knowledge. Through the 1990s, research in magnetic resonance instrumentation targeted at finding out new methods to acquire detailed images more rapidly at higher resolutions to harness greater intricacy in understand patient condition and tissue abnormalities. The basic principle of the function of a conventional MRI device is shown in Figure – 1. (Coyne 2013; Brown and Semelke1999) Figure – 1: Basic function of a conventional MRI system (Coyne 2013) So conventional MRI and Interventional MRI (may also be referred to as intraoperative MRI) or iMRI are completely different techniques although the basic technology behind them is the same. MRI is used in a largely stationary environment to meet diagnostic aims. But iMRI aims at not only examining but also treating the abnormal tissues diagnosed or discovered during an operative procedure. Furthermore, iMRI can both guide and improve the treatment process, including procedures in an operation room (OR). (Blanco Sequeiros et al 2005; Lufkin, Gronemeyer, and Seibel 1997) Hushek et al (2008) state that iMRI applications have facilitated development of various improved ancillary devices and techniques that have enriched medical technology and biophysics holistically. For example, continuous research in the field of iMRI led to the invention of advanced pulse sequencing to establish a rapid imaging system with the help of an MR scanner. Furthermore, iMRI
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